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11 Phrases Never to Use on Your Resume. If you want a job and don't want to die at the hands of HR follow these tips. It’s a tricky tightrope to walk, crafting the perfect resume one that stays within the mobile proposal, right conventions of a profoundly conservative format while revealing a spark of originality. Tree Is My Friend Essay. One way to make it easier? Avoid these 11 stinkers. Unless you know someone who knows someone, the reality is that your resume is most likely going to be one of hundreds maybe even thousands sitting on the desk of an overworked HR staffer.
The first thing they’ll be looking for when pruning the stack of CVs on their desk is thesis proposal, reasons to vs thesis lighten their load as quickly as possible. A goofy headshot? Gone. Thesis Proposal. Aggressively coloured paper-stock? Gone. Chemistry Coursework Rates. Notes from mom attached? Posted up in the coffee room for everyone to have a chuckle over.
Once the obvious non-candidates have been weeded out for sticking out, there’s another level of sins that HR staff come across as, day after day after day, they plow through the remaining mountains of same-y resumes and cookie-cutter job applications: clichés, buzzwords and tired, overused phrases that, for some of them, grate more harshly than Hello Kitty stickers on a pink cover sheet. 1. I am a good communicator/I have excellent communication skills. If you feel you must, in this day and age, list your ability to talk and listen on a resume, be specific. Give examples of a communications project you worked on. Mobile. But in general, assume that the ability to communicate is a widespread human skill. Why not leave it off to make room for other, more concrete achievements? WHAT YOU SHOULD SAY: Be specific and list a position that shows your ability to take in and relay information: “I worked with both the Vancouver and Toronto offices on the 2010 website launch. Is My Best Friend Essay. One of the most over-used clichés out there, sure to mobile application induce at least one eyeroll. Again, these days the ability to work with others is considered a given for most members of our species, especially those of us attempting to join an organization.
Leave any talk of teams and your ability to play on them back in the locker room. Your social aptitude should be evident from the context of genesis vs thesis, your other resume entries. Application. WHAT YOU SHOULD SAY: Again, be concrete and specific: “I worked on the eight-person Standards 2011 Task Force.” Cutting-edge, envelope-pushing: these were deadly clichés back when cell-phones were the size of suitcases. Using them makes you sound quaint, deluded and boastful. Let the advanced technology or innovative procedures you worked with speak for themselves. WHAT YOU SHOULD SAY: I created a promotional film for the firm using Final Cut Pro 7. Vs Thesis Wordpress Theme. As noted in the introduction, sometimes you will find a job ad that specifically asks for thesis, a multi-tasker there are plenty of jobs, such as personal assistant that require the ability to juggle a variety of in marathi, tasks.
If this is the sort of thing you’re applying for, then go ahead. But even then be aware that multi-tasking is increasingly, thanks to the prevalence of studies that find it to thesis be inefficient at best, seen as a bad work practice. Genesis Vs Thesis Wordpress Theme. WHAT YOU SHOULD SAY: Again, be specific and mobile application proposal list multiple, contemporaneous projects if you need to. But let the employer figure it out for herself. Is there any more meaningless word in the English language, or more clear sign that the speaker is in love with antiquated corporate jargon? Any sentence that is not improved by the removal of the word proactive? No. What should you say in its place?
Nothing at all. WHAT YOU SHOULD SAY: Seriously. Nothing. 6. I interfaced with our legal team on vs thesis theme the McKenzie case. How about mobile application proposal, saying “met with.” Or “worked alongside.” Both mean pretty much the genesis vs thesis, exact same thing, and don’t have that trying-too-hard-to-be-a man-machine air to them. Thesis Proposal. If you ever find yourself attempting to facilitate interface, you are, quite possibly, a Cylon. And you are much too tedious to hire. WHAT YOU SHOULD SAY: I worked closely with the legal team on the McKenzie case. Most organizations already have a resident detail obsessive.
They are a mixed blessing at best, able to spot the tiniest flaws before they cause trouble, but also able to hang up projects for far too long while they focus on genesis wordpress theme less-than-important fidgeting. Mobile Application Thesis Proposal. Best to let your love for the little things come through in genesis vs thesis wordpress, the flawlessness of mobile proposal, your application. WHAT YOU SHOULD SAY: Ensure your resume doesn't include any egregious errors. That should take care of it. Unless you’re submitting a technical resume for an engineering position, perhaps avoid industry jargon.
Even in IT, the most jargon-heavy field of all these days, the buzzwords change, fall out of favour or become meaningless with such speed that it is best to limit their use as much as possible. Make your accomplishments as broadly understandable as possible. WHAT YOU SHOULD SAY: Keep it simple, and be sure to update frequently. This month’s Final Cut Pro 7 is next month’s Adobe Pagemaker. And try to never use the latest buzzword: there’s almost always someone in genesis vs thesis theme, the company who thinks it’s a bunch of baloney. Sadly, a lengthy career can be a double-edged sword in today’s marketplace. In most fields, technological and structural change has become so rapid that a resume that’s a little too long can be as much of a deterrent as one that’s too short. Edit with this in mind.
Don’t go so far as to fake your age, but try to avoid looking too grizzled. WHAT YOU SHOULD SAY: Just leave out your 1940s high school graduation date. Beware the mobile application thesis proposal, modifier! Words such as skillfully, effectively, carefully, quickly, and expert can hurt more than they help. They are unverifiable, for one thing, and can sound boastful or conceited. Is My Friend In Marathi. List your accomplishments and performance in thesis, a measurable way, and let the employer decide how skilled you are. Uw Madison Thesis Requirements. WHAT YOU SHOULD SAY: Include awards, nominations or concrete recognition of application, your skills. WHAT YOU'RE TRYING TO SAY: “I’m perfect.” In general, avoid mentioning any personality traits you might happen to share with absolutist monarchs. Life is descriptive, not perfect and neither is the workplace.
In both, you’re going to have to compromise if you want to application thesis get anything done. The best employees know how far to genesis theme pursue perfection, and mobile application thesis proposal when to bend to the demands of paul trocha, reality. WHAT YOU SHOULD SAY: Avoid defining your character on your resume. It just isn’t the thesis, place, and you should let your record speak for vs thesis, itself. The 9 Dumbest Fads Ever to Make Money. The 13 Worst Bosses from proposal Movies and TV. The 11 Dumbest Quotes from Powerful People.
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constrast essay An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers. Despite vanquishing his opponents in application the long series of civil wars 49-45 BC, Caesar did little to address the underlying ills of the Republic. His concerns were first and foremost the defeat in the field of his political opponents. Vs Thesis. During these years, and following his final victory, he was content to maintain control by a combination of the consulship and the revived, albeit reviled, dictatorship. Extensive and excessive honors of all sorts were also voted to Caesar by a sycophantic senate: he refused none, save attempts to crown him king. Nevertheless, his broad disregard for mobile thesis tradition and essay conventional of energy precedent, and the general air of arrogance and high-handedness that marked Caesar's dealings with his peers, made him appear Rome's king in all but name. Application Proposal. To be sure, he passed various items of legislation dealing with immediate problems (for instance, debt relief or the calendar), but he made no serious effort to tree is my systematize his position or tackle the issues that had generated the Roman Revolution in the first place. In fact, in mobile thesis proposal the last months of his life he was planning to leave Rome for several years to campaign against the Parthians in the East.
That the essay on non, cabal of nobles who conspired to kill Caesar included disaffected members of his own party constitutes stark testimony as to the effects of Caesar's tactlessness. On 15 March, 44 BC C. Proposal. Julius Caesar, dictator for life, was surrounded by the conspirators at a meeting of the senate and cut down with twenty-three stab wounds. He died at the foot of a statue of his great rival, Pompey. The senatorial Liberators, covered in blood and brandishing their daggers, rushed out to accept the gratitude of the liberated. They met with a somewhat different reception. The people had loved Caesar, even if his recent behavior had been disappointing [] . The Liberators, who were led by L. Cassius Longinus and descriptive essay M. Junius Brutus, held public meetings in the Forum, but the mobile thesis proposal, reaction of the people was equivocal at conventional of energy best. The senate, meeting on mobile proposal, March 17, vacillated and declared an amnesty for the Liberators (inferring legitimacy for descriptive friend their act of tyrannicide) while ratifying all of Caesar's acts and proposal decreeing him a public funeral in the Forum (inferring legitimacy for Caesar's power). It may have seemed a workable compromise, but when Caesar's mutilated body was displayed to the crowd and the contents of is my best friend his will were made public--in which some gardens were bequeathed to the public and an individual stipend given to each member of the Roman people--the dam of emotion burst and rioting ensued.
The Liberators fled the city. Power seemed firmly in the hands of the pro-Caesar camp and, in mobile thesis particular, in those of M. Antonius (Mark Antony), Caesar's right-hand man. Gcse Chemistry Of Reaction Concentration. The dictator's will, however, had contained something of a political bombshell that was to shake this situation to its foundations. For Caesar named as his chief heir and adopted son one of his three great-nephews, C. Octavius. The nature of the relationship between Caesar and the young Octavius is not clear. Mobile Thesis Proposal. Dio claims (45.1.2) that after Octavius reached maturity (in 48 BC), Caesar took him in and began training him to be his successor. This assertion is trocha, clearly more informed by later imperial behavior than by Late Republican practice, and is unlikely in proposal any case, since Caesar was much occupied with the civil wars at descriptive friend this time (49-45 BC). Mobile Proposal. There is no evidence that the two actually met before Octavius was in his mid-teens, but that the dictator noticed Octavius is hardly to be doubted.
Suetonius ( Aug . 8.1) presents a more likely series of events. In 48 BC the young Octavius was elected to the pontifical college. When Caesar celebrated his multiple triumphs in September 46 BC, Octavius took part in the procession and genesis vs thesis theme was accorded military honors. Application Thesis. At some time in this period, Octavius was also adlected into thesis the patrician order. He then followed Caesar to Spain when the mobile application proposal, latter went to resume fight the Pompeians at Munda (45 BC). He earned the admiration of the dictator for the daring of his journey, which included a shipwreck; he was to show this same daring repeatedly in mobile application thesis proposal future months and years. In 44 BC Caesar nominated the magistrates several years in advance (another shunning of tradition on Caesar's part), and the young man was included as his Master of Horse for 43 or 42 BC. Despite these indications of favor, it is fair to say that in the broad scheme of things Octavius was a non-player and a political nobody in March 44 BC, when his great-uncle was killed.
When he heard of Caesar's murder, Octavius was in Apollonia in trocha Illyricum, preparing to mobile thesis proposal join Caesar on tree is my friend essay in marathi, his Parthian campaign. His friends and mobile thesis proposal some senior army officers urged him to take refuge with the army in Macedonia; his family advised that he lie low and come to Rome unthreateningly as a private citizen. He opted for the latter course of action and arrived in southern Italy, south of Brundisium. Here, he heard more details about tree essay in marathi, Caesar's death and of his own adoption. Mobile Application Thesis. His family, now fearful for his life, urged him to renounce the essay, adoption and inheritance in order to secure his personal safety. In a tremendous act of daring, he instead made directly for mobile application thesis proposal Brundisium and the large concentration of troops there. Tree Is My Friend In Marathi. [] Entrance into Politics: April 44-November 43 BC [] Antony paid no attention, at mobile least officially.
He sent no deputations to meet Octavian and inquire as to his intentions. Perhaps he dismissed the youth's actions as a sideshow bearing little relevance to the main thrust of politics. [] At that time Antony was deeply occupied with several important matters, not the least being to secure powerful provinces for trocha resume himself while downgrading those of Cassius and mobile Brutus, the leaders of the Liberators. Thus, when Octavian finally entered Rome toward the end of April, Antony continued to ignore him. Octavian kept his cool and arranged a meeting. When he showed up--ironically, in the gardens of Pompey on the Oppian Hill--he was pointedly kept waiting. The ensuing exchange did not go well. Essay My Best. [] In subsequent weeks, Antony blocked Octavian's moves to mobile have his adoption officially recognized and vs thesis theme also prevented him from standing for application thesis proposal public office.
But Octavian curried favor with the crowd, and tensions with Antony rose. [] Events around Mutina in genesis vs thesis theme northern Italy brought matters to a head, both between the Caesarian camp and the Liberators and between Antony and Octavian. Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus had been a supporter of Caesar's -- and one of his assassins. The dictator had appointed him to the governorship of Cisalpine Gaul (roughly the thesis, Po Valley region of modern Italy), an appointment confirmed by wordpress theme the senate. The senate had also assigned Antony, consul in 44 BC, the application thesis, province of Macedonia. Through tribunician legislation in June 44 BC, Antony had his command in essay friend Macedonia exchanged for that in proximate and powerful Cisalpine Gaul. Mobile. Decimus Brutus's term was up at the end of 44 BC, but Antony decided to assume command of Cisalpine Gaul in November. Decimus Brutus resisted and was supported by a senate largely well disposed toward the Liberators, whom it regarded as tyrannicides. Chemistry Of Reaction Concentration. []
Against this backdrop of mobile proposal looming crisis between the Caesarians and the Liberators, the chemistry rates of reaction concentration, relationship between Antony and mobile application thesis Octavian continued to deteriorate, despite occasional public reconciliations. Antony accused Octavian of plotting against friend essay him, while Octavian attempted, through agents, to undermine the loyalty of the army that Antony was bringing to Italy from Macedonia. Antony went to Brundisium to secure his army (things did not go well there for him), at which juncture Octavian showed his daring once more. Despite the mobile, risk of being branded a public enemy, he toured the Caesarian colonies of Campania and, relying on on non conventional source of energy, old loyalties, raised a private army from among Caesar's veterans, perhaps 10,000 strong. Mobile Application Thesis Proposal. It was a vivid demonstration of the power of the name Caesar. Tree Is My In Marathi. Antony, meanwhile, returned to Rome and intended to denounce Octavian to the senate when he heard that two of his five legions from Macedonia had defected to Octavian.
Fearing the worst, he took the remainder of his force and hastened to attack Decimus Brutus in Cisalpine Gaul. [] The situation was now highly volatile. Decimus Brutus, backed by the senate, was resisting Antony under arms, and retired to the fortified town of Mutina in Cisalpine Gaul. Thesis. Antony had four legions, Octavian had five. All the armed parties were mutually antagonistic. The senate, led by Cicero in his last great political action, identified Antony as the greater threat. [] Cicero and Antony were now on opposing sides, following an tree acrimonious oratorical exchange in the senate that started in September 44 BC. Application Proposal. At this crucial juncture, then, Cicero deployed his considerable rhetorical skill to Octavian's benefit and began to champion his cause as a foil to Antony's power. As a result, on coursework of reaction, 1 January, 43 BC Octavian's essentially illegal command of men under arms was legitimized with a grant of propraetorian power. As such, Octavian continued his preparations to attack Antony, now declared a public enemy, who had begun besieging Decimus Brutus at Mutina. Octavian, now an official representative of the republic, led his force into the region and moved against Antony. []
In two engagements in April, Antony was bested and fled over mobile thesis proposal the Alps to his political allies in Transalpine Gaul. Both consuls for 43 BC, however, perished in the fighting around Mutina, and wordpress theme Octavian, as the senior commander on the spot, refused to cooperate any further with Decimus Brutus, a murderer of his father. The senators, it appears, hoped that Octavian would now go away. They appointed Decimus Brutus to the overall command against thesis proposal Antony, issued decrees of public thanks to him, and tree is my friend palmed Octavian off with an ovation. When a commission to distribute land to thesis proposal veterans was set up, Octavian was pointedly omitted. Smarting at such insulting treatment, Octavian bided his time and put in requests for best friend essay a consulship (with Cicero as his colleague) and a triumph.
Meanwhile, Antony was preparing to mobile application thesis return to Cisalpine Gaul with enormous forces gained from Caesarian commanders in Transalpine Gaul. The situation remained unstable. [] In the face of all these developments, Octavian once more acted with courage and determination, even if with shocking directness. Having secured his army's loyalty, he marched on paul trocha resume, Rome and seized the city with eight legions. Three legions brought from outside Italy to mobile application thesis counter him defected. Wordpress. Unsurprisingly, Octavian was elected consul to replace the deceased consuls of mobile proposal 43 BC. Descriptive Essay My Best Friend. He now carried the long-delayed ratification of his adoption, paid out the remainder of Caesar's legacy, revoked the mobile thesis proposal, amnesty for the Liberators, and tried and convicted them en masse and in absentia on a single day.
Despite his control of Rome, Octavian's position was perilous. Genesis Theme. Antony was massing huge forces in Cisalpine Gaul and, across the Adriatic, Cassius and Brutus had taken the opportunity offered by application the enmity between the Caesarian leaders to gain control of most of the eastern empire, it might be noted, with no great regard for either legality or scruple. [] These complicated events have been treated here in descriptive my best friend detail due to their immense importance in establishing Octavian in application the mainstream of Roman politics. Dismissed by Antony and then by trocha the senate as a bit player, he proved repeatedly capable of deft and resolute action in defence of his interests. On account of his tender years, he lacked the nexus of influential support that most leading Roman politicians, including Antony, found essential to their success and therefore he had to rely more on direct appeals to the mob, his troops, and supporters of Caesar. His actions might not have been always scrupulous or admirable, but Late-Republican politics was a vicious and cutthroat business and few involved adhered solely to principle (the Liberators, for instance, went about the eastern empire seizing provinces and only had their acts ratified post factum by a compliant senate). Octavian had only two reliable tools available to him at this early stage in his career: his name, Caesar, and promises of bounty to the soldiers, and he deployed both with daring and decisiveness when he had to. In the autumn of 43 BC, he was to make his most ambitious move yet. The Triumvirate I: Early Challenges, 43-36 BC.
The rule of the application thesis proposal, three got off to an inauspicious start. Their first act was the implementation of proscriptions, unused since the horrible days of Sulla's dictatorship. Since the is my friend in marathi, property of the proscribed was forfeited, the application thesis proposal, main motive of the triumvirs in instigating the terror appears to have been financial, as many of their most implacable enemies were not in Rome or Italy at requirements all but with Brutus and application thesis proposal Cassius in the East. Paul Trocha. A recent interpretation has questioned this view and argues that the proscriptions were a purely political act, designed to root out all opposition to the triumvirs in Italy. Our sources preserve, in excruciating detail, dozens of tragic anecdotes about the proscribed as well as the mobile thesis proposal, text of the chilling proclamation announcing the essay on non, proscriptions. Application. Cicero, Antony's bitter enemy, was one of the first victims, with Octavian's compliance. The apparent financial reason for the triumvirs' need for money was soon to be made clear, when mass veteran settlements took place. Thousands perished in the chaos and mayhem that inevitably followed hard on the heels of the essay on non conventional source, proscriptions. []
Next, the thesis proposal, Liberators had to be dealt with. Wordpress Theme. After a prelude in Africa early in 42 BC, in which a pro-senate governor was ousted by Octavian's appointee, Antony and Octavian moved on Cassius and Brutus in the summer and autumn of that same year. The campaign took place in the Balkans and culminated in a double battle some weeks apart in October at application thesis proposal Philippi in Macedonia. The Liberators were decisively defeated, Cassius and Brutus committed suicide, and the Caesarians established their control over the whole Roman world. Octavian, who had not played a glorious part in the battles, showed complete implacability in executing any and all of those implicated in the murder of Caesar who fell into his hands. A reshuffling of the provinces was required in light of the new situation: Antony got the East but retained Transalpine and Narbonese Gaul; Octavian got most of the West; Lepidus, fast being overshadowed by his more ambitious and ruthless partners, was effectively sidelined in Africa. Following Philippi, Antony moved east, Octavian returned to Italy, and a new polarization of the vs thesis, Roman world began to manifest itself. [] In the application proposal, West, Octavian faced an immediate problem: the resume, settlement of some 40,000 veterans in mobile application thesis Italian communities. Veteran settlement was of paramount concern, since it spoke to uw madison Octavian's trustworthiness as a patron and so could influence the future loyalty of his armies. The procedure entailed the forcible eviction of inhabitants from their land followed by its redistribution as individual plots among the ex-soldiers. Mobile Thesis Proposal. Prior to descriptive Philippi, eighteen rich towns in Italy had been promised to the soldiers--now it was time to pay up.
Beginning in 41 BC and continuing for perhaps a year or more afterward, life in the towns and mobile regions selected for settlement underwent massive disruption. Genesis Vs Thesis Wordpress. It seems that the dispossessed were not compensated for their loss, so that the whole process made Octavian enormously unpopular in Italy. [] This unpopularity generated an opportunity for the opponents of the triumvirate and led to the so-called Perusine War. One of the consuls of 41 BC was L. Antonius, brother of mobile thesis Mark Antony. Playing on Octavian's poor reputation among the Italians, he stirred up as much trouble for the triumvir as he could. Uw Madison Requirements. He began spreading rumors that Antony's veterans were being shabbily treated compared to Octavian's and, along with Antony's wife Fulvia, started lobbying for the dispossessed Italians. His actions carried grave political dangers for Octavian, who could not allow army loyalties to be divided in Italy. The big question in all this remains how cognizant, even complicit, Mark Antony was in his brother's agitation. By late in 41 BC the situation had so deteriorated that war between Octavian and L. Thesis. Antonius in Italy was inevitable. When hostilities broke out, operations focused on Perusia, where Octavian holed Lucius and Fulvia up in descriptive essay my best early 40 BC up. After several months of siege, Lucius surrendered and was magnanimously spared by Octavian, though the application, councilors and paul trocha resume people of Perusia were not so fortunate: Octavian executed the local council and gave the town over to his soldiers to plunder.
He then adjourned to Gaul, there to supervise the transfer of the region to his own command, since the Antonian governor had died. [] Mark Antony reacted to this situation by moving west in the spring of 40 BC and besieging Brundisium. Octavian gathered his forces and marched south to confront him. The triumvirate appeared to be over, its two chief members at mobile proposal war. However, neither army was keen for uw madison requirements war and negotiations produced an agreement instead, termed the Pact of Brundisium. By means of this agreement, Antony ceded Gaul to Octavian, relinquishing his last foothold in the West, but was confirmed in the East. Lepidus continued to languish in Africa.
Further, Antony was married to Octavian's sister, Octavia. (Fulvia had unexpectedly, and conveniently, died in Greece in the interim.) The triumvirs then travelled to Rome amidst scenes of great public rejoicing. [] The attention of the triumvirs was then directed toward Sextus Pompeius in Sicily, who was posing a challenge to their authority in the West. Mobile Application Thesis. Sextus, the youngest son of Pompey, is one of the more colorful characters of the Roman Revolution. Surviving the of energy, Pompeian defeat at Munda in 45 BC, he fought guerilla warfare in Spain and then took to the sea as a pirate leader. When he was recalled to Rome following Caesar's murder, he cautiously sailed to Massilia and awaited developments. During the war at Mutina, when the mobile, fortunes of the senate and the Liberators appeared to paul resume be in the ascendant, he found himself appointed prefect of Rome's fleets and application thesis Italy's coastal zones (on 20 March, 43 BC). With the establishment of the triumvirate six months later, he seized Sicily and, as a beacon of resistance against the triumvirs, was greatly reinforced by refugees from the proscriptions, survivors of essay on non conventional of energy Philippi, those dispossessed by the veteran settlements in Italy, and any remaining forces of republican sentiment. He beat off attempts by Octavian to oust him from Sicily.
Antony formed a pact with him, in mobile order to make his move against Octavian in tree friend 40 BC but, if Sextus had hoped for some concrete reward for this service, he got none: he benefited in no way from the Pact of Brundisium and was not officially recognized by the triumvirs. Now he exacted revenge by mobile application proposal blockading Italy and placing a stranglehold on Rome's grain supply. Antony and Octavian were forced to act. Incapable of assailing Sextus militarily, they were forced to negotiate. At a meeting off the coast at trocha resume Misenum or Puteoli, an mobile application agreement was reached (the Treaty of Misenum [or Puteoli]) in the summer of 39 BC. This agreement saw Sextus's control over Corsica, Sardinia, and Sicily made official with a promise that he'd be given the Peloponnese and a consulship in descriptive essay my best due course. Sextus appeared well entrenched in triumviral politics, a fourth important player in mobile application thesis the complex game. []
The Treaty of Misenum was to have a short shelf life. Antony returned to uw madison requirements the East, to Cleopatra and indecisive campaigns against the Parthians. Octavian remained in Italy and application worked at extending his circle of genesis wordpress theme followers and his influence in general. Toward that end, the presence of Sextus Pompeius was an obstacle. When the Peloponnese did not come his way as had been promised, Sextus blockaded Italy again in 38 BC. Thesis Proposal. Octavian moved against him, but lost a naval engagement at Cumae and essay much of his fleet in a subsequent storm. He now appealed to Antony for help. The two met at Tarentum in the summer of 37 BC. Aside from Octavian's acquisition of proposal some 120 ships from Antony for the effort against Sextus (in return for a promise of uw madison thesis 20,000 Italian troops for Antony's planned Parthian campaign), the meeting saw the triumvirate renewed for a further five years. The office had expired on 31 December, 38 BC, but none of the incumbents had paid any attention to that inconvenient detail and continued to application exercise its prerogatives (illegally) for the first months of 37 BC.
Now their power was renewed. [] Since equilibrium had been restored with Antony, Octavian now turned his full attention to uw madison defeating Sextus. Elaborate preparations, mostly under the direction M. Vipsanius Agrippa, finally readied Octavian's fleet for action in 36 BC. While Agrippa held Sextus's fleet at mobile application thesis bay, Lepidus was marshalled from Africa, to assault Sicily from the south. Another of Octavian's generals was to converge on Italy from the northeast, while Octavian himself would move from Campania. But ship-destroying storms and genesis vs thesis theme another naval defeat for Octavian at the hands of Sextus seemed to signal the failure of the entire operation. Agrippa, however, saved the day and took several of application thesis proposal Sextus's ports before engaging and destroying the rebel's fleet at the battle of Naulochus on 3 September, 36 BC. Sextus fled east but was murdered not long afterward. Despite reverses, then, Octavian had ultimately emerged victorious and, in Sextus, had eliminated one the rivals to his position of dominance in the West.
Fate allowed him to neutralize the other. Lepidus, so long in the shadows, now decided to make a play for power. Finding himself in control of twenty-two legions in Sicily, he defied Octavian and made demands that he quit the island for good. Octavian marched in his direction, at which point Lepidus's men deserted him. At an embarrassing scene in Lepidus's camp, Octavian spared his former triumviral colleague but stripped him of his powers and confined him to friend house arrest at the pleasant seaside town of Circeii. There he lived out his life unmolested until he died, of application proposal natural causes, in 12 BC. [] Octavian was now the unchallenged master of the trocha, Roman West. In one campaigning season he had rid himself of the proposal, open challenge of Sextus Pompeius and the sleeping challenge of Lepidus. He set about consolidating his position for the inevitable clash with Antony. The Triumvirate II: Showdown with Antony, 36-30 BC. In the East, Antony was not faring terribly well.
He had, since 36 BC, been involved in sporadic and difficult contests with the Parthians and Armenians. There had been no decisive outcome and, in fact, there was a rather hasty retreat back to gcse chemistry of reaction Syria. This was all the more regrettable (in Antony's eyes), since Octavian had been successful against Sextus and then, in 35-33 BC, against the tribes of proposal Illyricum. But Antony's behavior in the East raised problems for him in the political arena, fully exploited by Octavian. His continuing link with Cleopatra, despite his marriage to Octavia, was among the most troublesome, and it had produced two children.
Antony also appeared to have gone native, wearing eastern dress, with an requirements eastern despot as a consort, and mobile practising eastern customs. Even more appalling, having seized Armenia in resume 34 BC, Antony staged a spectacle in Alexandria's gymnasium known since as the Donations of mobile application proposal Alexandria. In this spectacle, Antony declared Cleopatra Queen of Kings and her son by Caesar, Caesarion, King of Kings; he then divided up the eastern Roman Empire among Cleopatra, Caesarion, and paul resume his own children. It seemed, from an Italian perspective, that Antony was under the mobile application thesis, spell of Cleopatra, whose ultimate goal, it was rumored, was to become Queen of Rome. Furthermore, Antony's recognition of Caesarion as Caesar's son undercut Octavian's most fundamental claim to political leadership. In an atmosphere such as this, tensions rose between Antony and Octavian. Gcse Coursework Concentration. At Rome, meanwhile, Octavian further heralded his new image by having his righthand-man Agrippa appointed aedile in 33 BC to see to the restoration of many long-neglected services in the city, especially the sewer system and water supply.
The city was also beautified with new buildings and the restoration of dilapidated ones, often by Octavian's supporters acting at his instigation. The popular image of Octavian's caring, popular administration must have been greatly bolstered by these actions. [] The year 32 BC was a difficult one and saw Octavian and Antony finally embark openly on the road to war. In the first place, Octavian's second term of triumviral powers ran out on 31 December, 33 BC. Mobile Application Proposal. This made his legal position somewhat delicate, but the niceties of descriptive essay friend legality were far less important than his demonstrable exercise of thesis proposal power and influence, especially among his troops.
Who was going to challenge him? It is interesting to uw madison observe that Octavian immediately ceased using the title triumvir; Antony did not. In dropping the title, Octavian once more ostentatiously respected Roman tradition. As matters turned out, events at mobile thesis Rome were to offer Octavian a new basis for claiming legitimate leadership of the Roman people, albeit a non-legal one. On 1 January, 32 BC, the Antonian consul, C. Sosius issued a speech denouncing Octavian and proposing something that required a tribunician veto to quash (the precise content of the proposal is unknown). Octavian, not in the city at the time, soon entered with an wordpress theme armed escort, convened the senate, and denounced Antony.
This action so effectively cowed the Antonians that Sosius and his fellow consul Ahenobarbus fled eastward followed by the other pro-Antony senators. News then reached Rome that Antony was forming his own senate in Alexandria from among the exiled senators and that he had officially renounced Octavia as his wife. Octavian, enraged, seized Antony's will from the Vestal Virgins (a completely illegal and mobile proposal unscrupulous act) and read it aloud in the senate. Chemistry Rates. Its contents shocked Roman sentiment: Antony wished to be buried in Alexandria, next to Cleopatra. It seemed to many that, after all, he was indeed planning to establish a renegade eastern empire with a foreign queen at mobile application its helm. Essay In Marathi. War was declared on Cleopatra, and traditional rituals revived to emphasize that the mobile application thesis, official enemy was a foreigner, not a fellow Roman. As preparations for genesis vs thesis war geared up in the summer of 32 BC, a remarkable thing happened. First Italy and then the western provinces swore an oath of allegiance to Octavian personally. Whether the oath was voluntary, as Augustus later claimed in mobile application proposal his Res Gestae , or a more carefully orchestrated piece of gcse chemistry coursework rates political theater, Octavian could now claim to be the people's choice for the war against Cleopatra. It was not a legal position, but it was an unassailable one. []
In prospect, the war between Antony and Octavian promised to be the largest civil conflict ever conducted by the Romans. Arrayed against application thesis proposal each other were the resources of the entire empire, East against West. The not inconsiderable resources of Ptolemaic Egypt, the last surviving major Hellenistic kingdom, were also in the mix. In the end, however, the war ended not with a bang but with a fizzle. The massive forces moved against each other and converged in Greece, as had Caesar and Pompey at the outset of an earlier great conflict. Paul Trocha Resume. The two sides encamped on the north side of the Ambracian gulf, near the promontory of Actium . Cleopatra's presence proved problematic for Antony, and there were defections to Octavian. Mobile Application Proposal. Meanwhile, Antony and Cleopatra managed to get their ships blockaded in the gulf by Octavian's fleet, under Agrippa's able command. In an attempt to break out on 2 September, 31 BC (almost five years to the day since Sextus' defeat at Naulochus) Antony was decisively defeated. In ancient accounts, Cleopatra and then Antony fled the battle prematurely. The land forces never engaged, but Antony's men defected to wordpress Octavian en masse. Everything had been decided in a few hours of thesis proposal naval warfare. []
The victory of Octavian was complete. Antony and essay conventional of energy Cleopatra fled to Egypt. Octavian made his way there via Syria, securing the loyalty of all as he went. Antony's forces and former supporters defected in droves. On reaching Egypt and Alexandria in the summer of 30 BC, Octavian faced Antony's forces on land and sea. A great battle seemed imminent -- until Antony's navy and application thesis proposal cavalry defected en masse before the very eyes of their general and his infantry were defeated (1 August, 30 BC). Antony and coursework Cleopatra committed suicide, and passed from historical reality into the realm of romantic legend. Octavian had Caesarion and Antony's eldest son (Antyllus) executed, and he annexed Egypt as a province of mobile proposal Rome, ending the Ptolemaic period of that country's history. He was now sole master of the entire Roman world.
If, indeed, it had been his intention from the thesis, start to reach this position, it must have been a particularly rewarding day. For fourteen years he had played a careful, dangerous, and patient game. Now it was time to secure the future, for himself and for Rome. [] From Octavian to Augustus: A New Order Established. In the wake of application Actium , however, there was work to be done. After taking Egypt and settling affairs there, Octavian stayed away from Rome as he saw to the organization of the East.
For the most part, Antony's arrangements were left in place, as long as old loyalties were suitably redirected. Requirements. Octavian returned to mobile thesis Rome and Italy, amid tumultuous celebrations, in August of 29 BC. Large numbers of veterans were settled (perhaps 25 legions totalling 40,000 men or more) both in Italy and the provinces, this time without complaint, since the vast wealth of Egypt allowed for ample compensation. When he entered Rome, he celebrated three triumphs over conventional source of energy three days (over Dalmatia, Actium, and Egypt). Legally, his difficult position of 32 BC had been bypassed and Octavian held the application, consulship every year from descriptive my best friend 31 BC onwards (until 23 BC).
Just as important, however, was the non-legal basis for his dominance, later expressed by Augustus as universal consent. The roots of this consent must lie in the oath of 32 BC, now extended in principle, if not in practice, to embrace the entire empire and all its armies. Octavian was, as he later put it, in complete control of affairs precisely because everyone wanted him to be and, just as significantly, because he was the last man standing. There is thesis, political posturing in his claim to wordpress theme universal consent, to be sure, but possibly also some kernel of truth. Mobile Application Thesis Proposal. He had ended the civil wars, and all hopes for tree best friend essay a peaceful future now rested with him and him alone. Thesis Proposal. In light of this, the senate and people voted him numerous honors in 29 BC, some of which Octavian judiciously refused, consonant with his image as respecter of tradition. [] Octavian's holding continuous consulships would be insufficient as a mode of administration in the long term, especially if, as he intended, the old order was to be seen to be restored.
He needed, somehow, to find a firm place simultaneously within and above established norms. His position at the head of gcse chemistry rates of reaction affairs therefore needed careful consideration, and this no doubt explains the eighteen-month gap between his return to Rome in August 29 BC and the so-called First Constitutional Settlement of mobile application proposal 13 January, 27 BC which, with the broadest of vs thesis theme brush strokes, began painting the portrait of the new order. Memories of mobile application Caesar's fate must have loomed large. Despite that dictator's huge popularity among the thesis requirements, masses, his complete victory over his enemies in civil war, and the devotion of his troops, he had been laid low by a few dozen disillusioned aristrocrats. Among the uppermost considerations pressing on Octavian, therefore, must have been the need to appease the sensibilities of the elite. In addition, the divided loyalties of highly politicized armies had been a plague on the Late Republic. Application. This situation too would require remedying. These two issues, in fact, were at the heart of the First Settlement, staged in the senate on 13 January, 27 BC. []
On that day, Octavian entered the senate and, to the shock of those not in the know, surrendered his position and retired to private life. The senators, possibly confused, reacted with indignance and insisted that Octavian remain at the helm of the state. After a show of thesis requirements reluctance, Octavian graciously accepted a share in the running of the state, gaining command of Spain (except Baetica), Gaul, Syria, Cyprus, and Egypt while the senate and people kept the rest. Within his extended provincia , granted for ten years, Octavian could appoint legates to administer regions on his behalf. Modern scholars have failed to reach agreement on the exact legal status of Octavian's command over his provinces (was it by virtue of imperium consulare or proconsulare , imperium maius or aequum ?), but the case for imperium proconsulare is the stronger; it also had precedents, in mobile application thesis the form of the extraordinary commands of Pompey or Caesar in the Late Republic.
This situation would have appealed to Octavian's desire to appear to be maintaining traditions while also doing nothing alarmingly new or innovative. Other honors and thesis requirements privileges were also forthcoming, at a second meeting on 16 January. Here Octavian was named Augustus, a word ringing with religious (augur) and social ( auctoritas ) meaning but not suggestive of mobile application thesis overt political dominance. C. Julius Caesar Octavianus now became Imperator Caesar Augustus. Gcse Chemistry. Other honors carried more symbolic meaning (laurels placed on the door of his house; award of the corona civica for saving the lives of citizens; the Shield of Virtues erected in his honor) but they were no less significant for that: they helped establish Augustus's pre-eminent place in the state and craft the beginnings of an Augustan ideology.
By means of this settlement, Augustus was simultaneously commander, leader, savior. [] In the summer following the settlement, Augustus left Rome to tour Gaul and Spain. The journey kept him away from Rome until 24 BC--probably a wise choice on mobile application thesis proposal, his part, to be out of the public eye while the new arrangements took root. While he was away his aides Agrippa and Maecenas supervised matters in Rome. The summer after his return, probably in June or July, the Second Constitutional Settlement was staged. At around this time a conspiracy was unearthed and two principals, Fannius Caepio and Varro Murena, were executed.
In the absence of evidence, scholarly debate has raged about the timing, aims, methods, and members of the chemistry coursework of reaction, conspiracy: was the Second Settlement a reaction to the conspiracy, or vice versa? Or were the events unrelated? In the end, the conclusion has to be left open, but the mobile proposal, case for the conspiracy's occurring after the settlement seems the stronger, though any causative links between events remains little more than putative. The outline of the Second Settlement itself is clear enough, even if several details remain debatable. Augustus relinquished the wordpress theme, consulship (which he had been monopolizing since 31 BC) and was only to take it up on two further occasions in the rest of mobile thesis his life, for dynastic reasons. In return, he received an empire-wide grant of on non source of energy proconsular power ( imperium proconsulare ) for five years. It is debated whether this imperium was greater ( maius ) than that of any other governor or equal ( aequum ) to it. Five decrees found in thesis proposal Cyrenaica, dated to the period 6-4 BC, show Augustus intervening in the internal affairs of essay my best friend this province.
The implication is that his imperium overrode that of the governor on the spot (and so was maius ), though the possibility that it was co-extensive with it must also be allowed (making the imperium aequum ). Mobile Thesis Proposal. Whatever the legal details, by vs thesis wordpress virtue of this grant of imperium in 23 BC, he could intervene in the affairs of any province in thesis proposal the empire. Descriptive My Best Friend. Unlike other governors, he was also given dispensation to retain his power within the city limits of mobile application thesis Rome (the pomerium ), probably for resume purely practical reasons: otherwise, every time he left the city, his proconsular power would need to application be renewed. In relinquishing the consulship, Augustus lost certain powers and privileges within the city of essay on non of energy Rome and its polity (his proconsular power notwithstanding). These were now compensated for by a grant of tribunician power ( tribunicia potestas ), also for five years, that allowed him all the rights and thesis proposal privileges of a tribune of the people, without actually holding that office: he could summon the people, propose legislation, veto meetings and proposals, and so on. With both his tribunician power and proconsular power, Augustus now had the ability to direct affairs in every wing of domestic and foreign administration. These two powers were long to chemistry coursework rates of reaction concentration remain the twin pillars of the Roman emperors' legal position. [] While the major settlements of 27 and 23 BC established the bases of Augustus's position, further refinements were necessary.
As with the settlement of 27 BC, Augustus soon left Rome for the East (22-19 BC). Before he left, he was forced to mobile application refuse offers of the dictatorship or perpetual consulship pressed on him by the people, who appear to have completely missed the subtleties of the paul, Second Settlement the year before. Application Thesis Proposal. Over the coming years, he received, piecemeal, some significant privileges and honors. In 23 BC, for instance, he was given the right to convene the senate whenever he saw fit ( ius primae relationis ). In 22 BC, he was appointed to oversee Rome's grain supply (for how long is unclear). In 19 , when he had returned from the East, he was given censorial powers for five years. When Lepidus finally died in 13 or 12 BC, Augustus became chief priest ( pontifex maximus ). Finally, in 2 BC, he was granted the title Father of his Country ( pater patriae ), a title of which he was immensely proud. Chemistry Coursework Of Reaction Concentration. It is not hard to see why, since the mobile thesis, title placed Augustus in rates concentration a relationship with the Roman state analogous to that of a paterfamilias over his charges: he was to be in complete control of everything. In addition, there was his membership of all the colleges of priests, numerous symbolic privileges (e.g., immunity from application proposal taxes), and the matter of auctoritas . Genesis Wordpress Theme. This personal quality, impossible to translate into English with a single word, was a combination of authority and influence derived from one's social and political position, family, abilities, and mobile application thesis proposal achievements.
It was, most importantly, an informal virtue: it could not be voted to anyone by the senate or the people. In this way, the conventional, extent of Augustus's auctoritas reflected the extent and success of his life's work, and it helped him get a lot of business done without constantly invoking his legally-conferred powers. Augustus simply had to make known his preferences for matters to transpire accordingly, so that, for instance, candidates for office whom he favored invariably got elected. No wonder he was proud to boast that he surpassed all in auctoritas . [] The complex edifice of the Augustan Principate was, at heart, a sham. But, like any successful sham, it was one that people could believe in. Above all, there was political genius in Augustus's slow and careful acquisition of overarching authority in every area of public life. At every step of the thesis, way--from the tree essay, oath of 32 BC through the constitutional settlements and the honors and privileges conferred upon proposal, him piecemeal--he could present himself as the uw madison thesis, passive partner. Mobile Application Proposal. On all occasions, the senate and people of Rome voluntarily conferred powers, privileges, and honors on him. He sought nothing for himself; he was no Caesar.
Indeed, he often expressed reluctance to accept offices and honors that struck him as excessive, and essay on non conventional of energy occasionally he refused them outright. In sharp contrast to Caesar, Augustus constantly had one eye on aristocratic sensitivities. Mobile Application Thesis Proposal. Furthermore, none of his cardinal powers were conferred for life but, rather, for fixed periods of five or (later) ten years. That these powers were never rescinded when they came up for renewal is essay my best friend, entirely beside the point: there was the illusion of choice. Mobile Application Proposal. That is what mattered.
The vocabulary Augustus chose to express his power, too, was a model of tact: leading citizen ( princeps ) not dictator, authoritative influence ( auctoritas ) not command ( imperium ). Throw into the equation his modest lifestyle, affable approachability, routine consultation of the senate, and tree is my friend genuinely impressive work ethic, and we have in Augustus one of the greatest and mobile application thesis proposal most skillfully manipulative politicians of any nation in any age. The Nature of the Principate and The Problem of the Succession. After Actium, Augustus moved on coursework of reaction concentration, the succession problem quickly. He began to show signs of favor to his nephew, Marcellus. He himself only had one natural child, Julia, his daughter by his second wife, Scribonia. The first sure sign of favor to Marcellus was his participation in Augustus's triple triumph of 29 BC. In 25 BC, Marcellus was married to Julia, forming a closer family link with Augustus. The following year, Marcellus became aedile and, on Augustus's request, was granted the privilege of sitting as an ex-praetor in the senate and mobile proposal of standing for the consulship ten years in advance of the legal age. By 23 BC he was widely considered, in Velleius's words, Augustus's successor in gcse chemistry of reaction power ( successor potentiae ). Then, a surprise. Application Proposal. Augustus fell seriously ill in 23 BC. As he lay on what he thought was his deathbed, he handed an account of the state's resources to the consul Cn.
Calpurnius Piso, and his signet ring to Agrippa. The symbolic message was clear: Marcellus was too young; experience was yet preferred at the top. Augustus recovered from his illness, but later that same year Marcellus fell ill and uw madison requirements was not so fortunate. He was nineteen when he died and was entombed with all due pomp and ceremony in Augustus's family mausoleum. [] The career of Marcellus, short though it was, already revealed the elements of thesis Augustus's methods: he was to use family links (marriage or adoption) in conjunction with constitutional privileges (office-holding and the privilege of standing for office early) to indicate his successor. His inspiration appears to have been his personal experience: as Caesar had presented Octavius to the public at vs thesis theme his triumphs of mobile proposal September 46 BC, so now did Augustus display Marcellus at gcse rates concentration his own triumphs in August 29 BC; as the senate had Octavius granted the thesis, right to stand for essay my best friend the consulship ten years in advance of the legal age in 43 BC, so Augustus had the application, same right granted to Marcellus in 24 BC; and uw madison just as Caesar had bound Octavius to him by a familial link, so now did Augustus with Marcellus's marriage to Julia (although such political alliances through family ties had long been a staple of the Roman nobility).
Each event had its precedent; it was their combination that was significant. [] Marcellus was soon replaced by Agrippa. Shortly before Marcellus's death, Agrippa had left for the East. In the face of Marcellus's earlier preferment, the sources abound with rumors of Agrippa's voluntary departure in high dudgeon or of his forcible exile, but such speculations are demonstrably without merit. Mobile. Agrippa had been favored when Augustus was ill in 23 BC and subsequently went East with a grant of paul resume imperium proconsulare , a share in Augustus's own powers.
This is application thesis proposal, not what Augustus would have done with a man of whom he was suspicious or who had fallen in any way from essay favor. Augustus had business in the East, to which he was shortly to attend personally, and application Agrippa was doubtless sent ahead to pave the way. Maecenas, Augustus's other chief advisor and no friend of Agrippa, is reported to have commented in 21 BC that Agrippa had now been raised so high that either Augustus must marry him to Julia or kill him. Augustus chose the former route. Julia was married to Agrippa in that year. Trocha. Until his death in 12 BC, Agrippa was clearly intended to mobile application thesis proposal be Augustus's successor. Aside from his marriage to Julia, in my best 18 BC Agrippa's proconsular power was renewed and, more significantly, he received a share of tribunician power (renewed in 13 BC). []
By virtue of these powers and privileges, had anything happened to mobile application proposal Augustus in the years 21-13 BC, Agrippa would have been ideally placed to take over the reins of government. Coins of the period 13-12 BC depict Agrippa as virtual co-emperor with Augustus, although the latter was always the senior partner. This straightforward interpretation of the situation in these years has been complicated by Augustus's treatment of Agrippa and Julia's sons, Gaius (born in 20 BC) and my best Lucius (born in 17 BC). When Lucius was born, Augustus adopted them both as his own sons and they became Gaius and Lucius Caesar. A further complication is application, added when the my best, ongoing careers of application Augustus's stepsons, Tiberius and Drusus, who were also advanced over these years, are taken into consideration. The intent behind these labyrinthine machinations appears to have been to create a pool of uw madison requirements eligible candidates, headed by a frontrunner. Any other princes as were advanced in the background are best considered as insurance against fate or as indicators of Augustus's preferences for the third generation of the Principate.
In this way, Agrippa was to succeed Augustus, but the adoption of Gaius and mobile application proposal Lucius signalled Augustus's desire that one of them succeed Agrippa (which one was to be preferred remains unclear, given subsequent events). Tiberius and Drusus, as imperial princes, can be expected to have enjoyed high public profiles and earned various privileges, but they were very much on chemistry concentration, the backburner in these years. Notions of Regency (Agrippa over Gaius and Lucius) or paired succession (Gaius and Lucius, Tiberius and Drusus) proposed by application thesis modern scholars seem remoter possibilities. [] Augustus's vision for uw madison requirements the succession can be seen in action again in 12 BC, when Agrippa died. Julia, now widowed a second time, was married to Tiberius the following year. Tiberius was Augustus's stepson and the most senior and mobile thesis proposal experienced of the secondary princes in the imperial house. As such, he was a natural choice. Not long afterward, Tiberius left for campaigns in Germany and Pannonia, possibly with a grant of genesis theme proconsular imperium . In 7 BC he entered his second consulship and the following year his position was made plain when he received a large commission in the East and a grant of tribunician power.
In short, between 12 and application thesis 6 BC Tiberius was upgraded to take Agrippa's place in Augustus's scheme and was installed to essay conventional of energy be Augustus's successor. But it was to mobile thesis be a rocky road indeed that led to his eventual succession in AD 14. In 6 BC Tiberius unexpectedly retired to Rhodes, despite his prominent public position. Augustus, apparently angered by Tiberius's action, had little choice (Drusus, Tiberius's brother had died in Germany in 9 BC). He appears to have relied on his increasingly robust health to paul see his adopted sons Gaius and proposal Lucius Caesar to their maturity. But fate intervened once more and both young men died, Lucius in AD 2 and descriptive friend Gaius two years after that. In a burst of dynastic activity in June of AD 4, Tiberius was rehabilitated and adopted by Augustus, as was Agrippa Postumus (the youngest child of Julia and mobile application thesis Agrippa); Tiberius was constrained to adopt his nephew Germanicus . Again, debate has swirled around these arrangements but, following the suggestions made above, it is probably best to avoid notions of regency or paired succcession and see here an attempt by Augustus to re-establish a pool of princes from which to draw candidates, with Tiberius as the favored successor and coursework rates of reaction Germanicus to come behind him.
The adoption of Agrippa Postumus remains puzzling, but he was still only a teenager at the time and the move may have been intended only to secure his prominence in future succession plans. Mobile. Germanicus , twenty years old at the time of his adoption by Tiberius , was clearly the frontrunner for essay conventional source of energy the third generation of the Principate. Through him, also, Augustus could hope for a Julian heir to the throne, but it is far from clear whether this remote consideration played any decisive role in Augustus's thinking. [] The succession issue was not a happy one for the imperial house and carried in its train some domestic tragedies. Aside from the deaths of the various princes, Augustus banished his own daughter Julia in 2 BC and her daughter, also named Julia, in mobile application AD 8. In AD 6-7 Agrippa Postumus was disinherited and banished to the small island of thesis Planasia, only to be murdered shortly after Augustus's death. Application Thesis. The banishment of Julia the Elder is essay, emblematic of this group of events. Mobile Application Thesis. Julia's marriage to chemistry rates of reaction Tiberius had not been successful and thesis she appears to have sought solace in the arms of various noblemen and equestrians. In 2 BC her indiscretions were brought to Augustus's attention and, enraged, he banished her to the island of Pandateria. She never returned to Rome. The sources unanimously ascribe Julia's fate to her licentiousness and immorality, but modern scholars have rightly questioned this presentation and seen instead dynastic scheming behind Julia's actions and subsequent banishment.
Whatever the actual degree of Julia's political acumen, the is my friend essay in marathi, informal and allusive nature of the succession system itself was the mobile application thesis, root cause of her demise. For, in gcse chemistry rates of reaction concentration the Augustan system, an imperial princess who had been married to no less than three indicated favorites (Marcellus, Agrippa, and Tiberius ) and mobile application thesis who then brought outsiders into genesis vs thesis wordpress her bed was also bringing them into the heart of the dynasty. That could not be tolerated. That Augustus interpreted his daughter's misdeeds in political terms, at least in part, is suggested by the trial for treason of one of Julia's lovers, Iullus Antonius, and his subsequent execution or suicide; others of her lovers were banished. The same can be said for the fall of mobile Agrippa Postumus and then of Julia the Younger. Gcse Chemistry Rates Of Reaction. However murky the details in each case, they can all be seen as victims of the Augustan succession system. [] In all, then, the succession problem was a difficult one for Augustus, and mobile his solutions only perpetuated it for all future emperors. Despite the paul resume, internal difficulties engendered by the issue, Augustus was keen to present a united image of the imperial house to the populace.
This is best illustrated by the Altar of the Augustan Peace ( Ara Pacis Augustae ), dedicated in January, 9 BC, and proposal laden with symbolic significance largely outside the purview of this biography. For our current purposes, most important is the presentation to source the people, on the south frieze, of the mobile application thesis, imperial family--women and children included--as a corporate entity. The message of dynastic harmony and the promise of future stability emanating from the imperial house is palpable. The reality, as we have just seen, was rather different. Augustus and the Empire I: the Army. Augustus completed the ongoing professionalization of the Roman military by establishing a force of vs thesis 28 standing legions (three were to be lost in mobile application proposal Germany in AD 9), made up of uw madison requirements volunteer recruits.
For the mobile application thesis, citizen soldiers of the legions, service was for a prescribed period (first 16, then 20 years), on a regular wage, and essay with fixed rewards upon discharge. After 14 BC, land grants were discontinued in favor of cash pension payments; such payments were funded, after AD 6, by a new public treasury (the aerarium militare ). For the first time, military service became a career choice in and of itself. Augustus also created a non-citizen wing of the mobile, army (corresponding to the Republican era's allies and extraordinarii ). These auxiliary troops were formed into cohorts of infantry and wings ( alae ) of paul trocha resume cavalry, usually 500 or 1000 strong, sometimes under their own commanders, sometimes under a Roman officer (an ex-centurion or tribune). Thesis Proposal. Under Augustus, auxiliary units were mostly raised as needed and disbanded when the campaign(s) ended; some units were incorporated into the new permanent force, on terms of essay my best friend service similar to those for the legionaries. Mobile Proposal. Augustus also regularized the organization and terms of service in the Roman navy and created the praetorian guard, a personal force which he discreetly and tactfully billeted in townships around Rome. [] Augustus was careful to channel the loyalties of this new professional army solely in his direction. The troops' loyalty to Augustus was assured by their taking a personal oath of loyalty to him and by tree friend in marathi his role as their sole paymaster and guarantor of their rewards on discharge.
In short, he was their patron. Mobile Application Thesis. The army's commanders on-the-ground were handpicked legates of Augustus; its campaign commanders were often the likes of Agrippa, Tiberius , or Gaius Caesar, that is, members of Augustus's own family or immediate circle. Essay On Non. He also kept the army busy in major campaigns in Spain, the Alpine regions, along the Danube and Rhine rivers, across the Rhine in Germany, and in numerous small-scale actions all along the empire's frontiers. Where active campaigns were not prosecuted, as in Gaul or in the East, the army was used as a means of aiding political settlements (as in the return of the Parthian eagles in 20 BC or the meeting of C. Caesar and the Parthians on an island in the Euphrates in AD 2) or as a garrison over local populations (as in Gaul). While Augustus did not go so far as to station the legions along the frontier as a defensive garrison force (as was to mobile application proposal happen in later ages), he at least removed them from the center of power and began the process of keeping them in the vicinity of the frontiers. Although Augustus appears to some scholars to have been aiming at establishing scientific frontiers along the Rhine/Elbe and Danube lines, the whole issue of his foreign policy--indeed, whether even such a policy existed--remains most unclear. For the gcse of reaction concentration, scientific frontiers view to be true, certain problematic assumptions are requisite, not the least concerning the Romans' cartographic capabilities and mobile application thesis their appreciation of geographic realities well beyond their immediate purview; it is also questionable to what degree the administration of the empire in general adhered to clearly conceived policy on anything, rather than reacting ad hoc as circumstances and local conditions dictated.
On the whole, then, we should probably avoid notions of Roman imperial policy on descriptive my best friend, the model of modern national policies. One of the chief political values of Augustus's campaigns was that it kept his new professional army busy--idle trained killers can be a somewhat destabilizing element in society--and afforded him considerable personal military glory, which further reinforced his claim to the loyalty of the troops. [] The importance to Augustus, as well as to application the state, of his monopolization of army loyalties is tree is my best friend, revealed in two suggestive incidents in 27 BC, when the Augustan order was still in its infancy. At this delicate time, M. Licinius Crassus, grandson of the great Late Republican magnate, raised a serious problem for Augustus. Application. As governor of Macedonia he had undertaken successful campaigns south of the Danube in 29-28 BC and had personally killed the enemy leader in battle. In 27 BC, then, he was awarded a triumph but he went further: he claimed the ancient honor of spolia opima (the most honorable spoils), awarded to a Roman commander who had slain his counterpart with his own hand. These honors, involving the dedication of the enemy commander's captured panoply to Jupiter Feretrius, had only been earned on three prior occasions in all of Roman history. Conventional Of Energy. Since Crassus's claim to the spolia opima would have raised Crassus into the uppermost echelons of military glory, it had the thesis, potential to confuse the soldiers' loyalty toward Augustus.
So Augustus blocked the claim on a technicality. Crassus held his triumph and promptly disappears from our records. Uw Madison. (It is application thesis, unlikely that he was killed but, rather, that his public profile died a death in the face of Augustus's displeasure, a good example, if true, of the requirements, workings of auctoritas .) Not long afterward, another governor proved problematic. C. Cornelius Gallus had been appointed the first prefect of Egypt on its annexation in 30 BC. Like Crassus, he had embarked on campaigns to surpress revolts and to attack neighboring people. He then celebrated his successes with statues of application thesis himself and source of energy bragging inscriptions, one of which has survived. Enraged, Augustus let it be known that he no longer considered Gallus his friend. Mobile Proposal. Charges were immediately brought and proposals laid that Gallus be convicted in absentia , exiled, and his property given to uw madison thesis Augustus. His social status and political career in ruins, his very life perhaps in danger, Gallus committed suicide (possibly in 26 BC). Both of these men had behaved fully within the boundaries of republican precedent but had failed utterly to appreciate a fundamental rule of the new order: there was to be no military glory but Augustus's.
In contrast, Agrippa, for mobile so long Augustus's right-hand man, repeatedly refused honors and triumphs granted to genesis vs thesis theme him; all his victories were celebrated by Augustus. Thesis. [] Augustus and the Empire II: Administration. In the sphere of external affairs, many of the army's conquests were formed into conventional source of energy new provinces, especially along the south shore of the Danube (Moesia, Pannonia, Noricum, and Raetia) and the Alps (Alpes Cottiae and Maritimae). In the East and in Mauretania in North Africa, client kingdoms and proposal principalities were allowed to exist, sometimes in paul resume very complex arrangements, as with the mobile thesis, Tetrarchs in Palestine or the numerous lesser kingdoms that dotted the interior and eastern reaches of Asia Minor. From 27 BC onward these provinces were divided into essay my best friend those that fell into the vast provincia of mobile thesis Augustus (the imperial provinces) and those that were retained by the senate and people (the senatorial or public provinces; see above, From Octavian to Augutus: A New Order Established). When the disposition of the provinces is examined (as it stood on Augustus's death in AD 14), it shows that the imperial territories outnumber the public ones by uw madison requirements a factor of almost two, and that all but one of the empire's twenty-five legions then in service fell under the emperor's command.
Further, the Cyrenaica decrees reveal the emperor making decisions about the internal operation of this, a public province. Such interference on Augustus's part was legitimated by the improved imperium proconsulare granted him in mobile application proposal the settlement of 23 BC and brings into question any notions of joint rule by senate and trocha princeps (so-called dyarchy). Application. Ultimately, all the my best, provinces were Augustus's concern. [] Overall, it is mobile, fair to say that the provinces, whether public or imperial, benefited enormously from Augustus's reign. Not only my best friend, had he brought them peace, he also brought them good government. Application. Legates in imperial provinces were appointed by Augustus for periods of tree best in marathi three years or more depending on proposal, local conditions, whereas proconsuls in the public provinces continued to best rotate annually.
The men varied in rank from thesis proposal senators (proconsuls, usually of praetorian rank, in uw madison requirements public provinces; legates of praetorian or consular rank in imperial ones) to equites (governing as prefects, as in mobile application Egypt and some of the smaller, unarmed provinces). Whatever their status, under the new order governors had no reason to extort from their provinces the huge sums of money that Republican-era proconsuls and propraetors had used to bankroll their domestic political careers, since the success of those careers now depended less on victory at the polls and more on the emperor's favor. Indeed, extortion in the provinces could be positively dangerous, as it raised suspicions about the gcse, nature of one's ultimate ambitions. These strictures applied no less in the public than in the imperial provinces, since all governors were now answerable to a single source of authority in a way they had not been under the Republic. This does not mean that rapacious governors entirely disappeared as a breed but that, for the most part--the disappointments of Gallus and Crassus aside--Augustus's gubernatorial appointments were sound. We hear of no major failings in the management of the provinces during his reign and application certainly nothing on a par with the essay of energy, rapacious activities of the likes of Caesar or Sulla under the Republic. Augustus, by virtue of proposal proconsular power, could also intervene directly in any provincial dispute, as he did famously in Cyrenaica. Hardly surprising, then, is the fact that of all the emperors, Augustus's image is the tree is my friend essay, most commonly found in the provinces, even long after his death. The remarkable period of peace and prosperity ushered in by Augustus's reign is mobile thesis proposal, known not only as the Pax Romana but also as the Pax Augusta . Tree In Marathi. [] Augustus, as the protector and guardian of Roman tradition, also sought to inculcate a return to mobile proposal that tradition by means of coursework of reaction concentration legislation: by new laws passed at application thesis proposal my instigation, I brought back those practices of our ancestors that were passing away in our age ( RG 8.5). Thus, for uw madison instance, he passed laws limiting public displays of extravagance (so-called sumptuary legislation) in the manner of the old Republican senate, and he attempted through marriage regulations to put a cap on divorces and punish childlessness and adultery among the elite.
He also reinforced the traditional social hierarchy, making sure that everyone knew their place in it. Minimum property qualifications for membership of the upper orders were reinforced, and status symbols for all the classes, especially the amorphous equestrians, clearly established. The convergence of mobile this sort of legislation is illustrated by the series of laws pertaining to freed slaves, passed between 17 BC and AD 4. In the first place, the numbers of slaves that could be informally manumitted or freed in wills was restricted in proportion to on non conventional source the total number of slaves owned. Mobile Proposal. This is a piece of sumptuary regulation, limiting overly extravagant displays of wealth and generosity in public. Second, informally freed slaves were placed into a special class of quasi-citizenship termed Junian Latinity that was capable of theme being upgraded to application thesis proposal full citizenship only after the Junians had proved themselves worthy; one way of achieving worthiness was to have children. Such regulations, then, encapsulated the Augustan attitudes toward public extravagance, maintenance of the social hierarchy, and marriage and reproduction. In his private life, Augustus fell short of his own ideals (witness the turmoil engendered in his family by adultery and infidelities of all sorts), but the thrust of his social legislation was less to regulate individuals' private behavior than to maintain the proper outward appearance of dignitas and decency that Augustus felt had been lost during the Late Republic.
As such, it pertained to the ruling classes of the in marathi, state and hardly at all affected the commoner on the street. [] Finally, there is the application, issue of the worship of Augustus. The imperial cult evolved gradually over many centuries, and it has been long recognized that ruler worship extended back well before Roman times in the eastern Mediterranean. In the East, then, the worship of Augustus as a god commenced not long after Actium. Augustus, reticent in wordpress theme this regard, often rejected divine honors outright or insisted that his worship be coupled with that of mobile proposal Rome. He probably had an gcse chemistry coursework of reaction concentration eye on Caesar's fate in mobile thesis proposal so acting. The situation in the West, however, was more difficult. In Rome itself there could be no question of Augustus being worshipped as a living god, which would go against the grain of the Principate. In any case, he was already the uw madison, son of mobile application thesis a god and the revered one (Augustus).
A compromise solution appears to have been to have his will ( numen ) or essence ( genius ) recognized as divine. In Italy and out in the western provinces Augustus did not actively block direct worship, and two major cult centers were established at Lugdunum in Gaul and Cologne on the Rhine with altars at essay on non conventional of energy each place to Rome and Augustus, maintained by officials drawn from the local elite. In communities all across the West, in fact, altars and temples to Rome and Augustus and to Augustus himself are attested, all staffed by locals. Such cult centers therefore acted not only to promote unity in the previously barbarous western provinces and to direct loyalties accordingly, but they also facilitated the assimilation of local populations into a Roman way of life. [] The Augustan literary scene was also exceptionally vibrant. This is the era of some of Rome's most famous and influential writers, including Vergil, Horace, Ovid, Propertius, and Tibullus in poetry, and Livy in prose. Vergil, in particular, crafted a new national epic for the Romans in the Aeneid , which quickly came to replace Ennius's Annales as the poem every schoolchild learned by heart. This great flowering of literary activity was generated by the development of thesis proposal literary circles of patronage, which had been mostly in abeyance since the friend essay in marathi, second century BC. The most famous literary, indeed artistic, patron of application proposal his day was C. Maecenas, a close associate of Augustus from the very beginning but one who never played an active role in my best friend politics (in contrast to mobile thesis proposal Agrippa). Something of a bon vivant , he actively supported the uw madison, careers of Vergil and thesis proposal Horace, for instance, until his death in 8 BC.
Another circle formed around M. Valerius Messalla Corvinus, who promoted the careers of Tibullus and Ovid. For the historian the most intriguing question such literary circles prompt is the degree to which the political and cultural sentiments expressed by these writers were officially directed, and so in effect provided propaganda for the Augustan regime. When all the evidence is weighed, there can be no question of a state-controlled literature (on the model of media in modern totalitarian states) but there may have been encouragement from the top to express the gcse chemistry coursework rates concentration, correct view coupled, no doubt, with genuine gratitude and relief on the part of the patrons and writers alike that Augustus had restored peace and stability to public affairs. In this way, Vergil's Eclogues and Georgics can reflect the hope Augustus brought for thesis a restoration of essay friend peace to the Italian countryside, while the Republican sentiments of Livy's history could be so pronounced that Augustus jokingly termed him my Pompeian. The point is that both authors flourished under the regime. [] The inscription entitled The Achievements of the Divine Augustus ( Res Gestae Divi Augustae ; usually abbreviated RG ) remains a remarkable piece of evidence deriving from Augustus's reign. The fullest copy of it is the bilingual Greek and Latin version carved into the walls of the Temple of Rome and Augustus at Ancyra in Galatia (for this reason the RG used to be commonly referred to application as the Monumentum Ancyranum ). Other evidence, however, demonstrates that the original was inscribed on two bronze pillars that flanked the descriptive essay, entrance to the Mausoleum of Augustus in Rome. The inscription remains the mobile, only first-person summary of any Roman emperor's political career and, as such, offers invaluable insights into thesis the Augustan regime's public presentation of itself. [] In looking back on the reign of Augustus and its legacy to mobile application thesis the Roman world, its longevity ought not to be overlooked as a key factor in its success. People had been born and reached middle age without knowing any form of government other than the Principate. Had Augustus died earlier (in 23 BC, for instance), matters may have turned out vs thesis, very differently.
The attrition of the mobile application thesis proposal, civil wars on the old Republican aristocracy and the longevity of Augustus, therefore, must be seen as major contributing factors in the transformation of the Roman state into a monarchy in these years. Augustus's own experience, his patience, his tact, and uw madison thesis requirements his great political acumen also played their part. All of these factors allowed him to put an end to the chaos of the Late Republic and re-establish the Roman state on a firm footing. He directed the future of the thesis, empire down many lasting paths, from the existence of a standing professional army stationed at genesis vs thesis wordpress theme or near the frontiers, to thesis the dynastic principle so often employed in the imperial succession, to tree friend essay in marathi the embellishment of the capital at the emperor's expense. Augustus's ultimate legacy, however, was the peace and prosperity the empire was to enjoy for the next two centuries under the system he initiated. His memory was enshrined in the political ethos of the Imperial age as a paradigm of the good emperor; although every emperor adopted his name, Caesar Augustus, only a handful earned genuine comparison with him. Benario, H.W., Octavian's Status in 32 BC, Chiron 5 (1975): 301-9. Birch, R.A., The Settlement of 26 June, AD 4 and its Aftermath, CQ 31 (1981): 443-56. Bleicken, J., Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat: Zum Charakter des Zweiten Triumvirats (Göttingen, 1990).
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The Emperor in the Roman World (London, 1977). ________. The Roman Empire and its Neighbours , 2nd edition (London, 1981). Millar, F. and E. Segal, Caesar Augustus: Seven Aspects (Oxford, 1984). Ostrow, S.E., The Augustales in vs thesis theme the Augustan Scheme, in Raaflaub and Toher, 364-78. Pollini, J., Man or God: Divine Assimilation and application thesis Imitation in the Late Republic and Early Empire, in Raaflaub and Toher, 334-63. Prince, S.R.F., Rituals and Power: The Roman Imperial Cult in Asia Minor (Cambridge, 1984) Raaflaub, K., and L. J. Samons II, Opposition to Augustus, in Raaflaub and Toher, 417-54.
________. and M. Toher (eds.), Between Republic and Empire: Interpretations of Augustus and his Principate (Berkeley, 1990). Ramage, E.S., The Nature and Purpose of Augustus's Res Gestae (Stuttgart, 1987). Rawson, E., Discrimina Ordinum: The Lex Julia Theatralis, PBSR 55 (1987): 83-114 (reprinted in gcse coursework rates her Roman Culture and Society: Collected Papers [Oxford, 1991], 508-45). Rich, J.W., Cassius Dio and the Augustan Settlement (Warminster, 1990). Reinhold, M., Marcus Agrippa: A Biography (Rome, 1965). Roddaz, J.-M., Marcus Agrippa (Rome, 1984). Salmon, E.T., The Evolution of Augustus's Principate, Historia 5 (1956): 456-78. Schlüter, W. Thesis Proposal. The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest: Archaeological Research at Kalkreise near Osnabrück, in J.D.
Creighton and thesis R.J.A. Wilson (eds), Roman Germany: Studies in Cultural Interaction (Portsmouth, RI, 1999), 125-59. Shotter, D.C., Augustus Caesar (London, 1991) Simon, E., Augustus: Kunst und Leben in Rom um die Zeitenwende (Munich 1986). Southern, P., Augustus (London, 1998).
Syme, R., The Roman Revolution , rev. ed. (Oxford, 1952). ________. History in Ovid (Oxford, 1978). ________. The Augustan Aristocracy (Oxford, 1986). Talbert, R.J.A., The Senate of application proposal Imperial Rome (Princeton, 1984). Taylor, L. R., The Divinity of the Roman Emperor (Middletown, 1931; reprint, New York, 1979). Von Premerstein, A. Vom Werden und Wesen des Prinzipate. Vs Thesis Wordpress. (Munich, 1937). Ward-Perkins, J.B., Roman Imperial Architecture , 2nd edition (Hammondsworth, 1981). Weigel, R.D., Lepidus: The Tarnished Triumvir (London, 1992). Whittaker, C.R., Frontiers of the Roman Empire: A Social and Economic Study (Baltimore, 1994).
Williams, G., Did Maecenas 'Fall from Favor'? Augustan Literary Patronage, in Raaflaub and Toher, 258-75. Zanker, P., The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus (Ann Arbor, 1988). NOTES (throughout the notes, items in the bibliography are referred to in abbreviated form) [] The chief ancient sources for the life of Augustus (mostly available as Penguin Classics or in the Loeb Classical Library) are: Appian B. Civ . Mobile Application Thesis Proposal. books 3-5; Dio, books 45-56; Cicero, Philippics and some letters; Nicolaus of Damascus, Augustus ; Plutarch, Mark Antony ; Suetonius, Augustus ; the Res Gestae Divi Augusti (see the edition by P.A. Brunt and J.M. Is My Best Essay In Marathi. Moore [Oxford, 1967]). Fragments of the biography of Augustus by Nicolaus of Damascus (fl. ca. 20 BC) are especially valuable, since this work is widely accepted as preserving elements of application thesis proposal Augustus's lost De Vita Sua (covering the years down to 25 BC; Suet. Aug . 1-18 appears also to be based on this autobiography).
The surviving text of Nicolaus, however, only treats Octavian's life down to essay my best the raising of mobile application his private legions in 44 BC (for editions with English translations and notes, see J. Bellemore, Nicolaus of Damascus: Life of Augustus [Bristol, 1984]; C.M. Hall, Nicolaus of Damascus: Life of Augustus [Baltimore, 1923]). There are also innumerable references to him in other ancient literary works and inscriptions, and large quantities of iconographic evidence (statues, busts, reliefs, gems, etc). Trocha Resume. The number of modern accounts is also formidable, with useful and concise introductions to be found in Shotter, Augustus Caesar and Jones, Augustus . More thorough and specific treatments include Bleicken, Augustus ; Kienast, Augustus ; Millar and Segal, Caesar Augustus: Seven Aspects ; Raaflaub and Toher, Between Republic and mobile Empire ; Southern, Augustus ; Syme, Roman Revolution ; id. History in essay on non Ovid . Application Thesis Proposal. In the interests of conciseness, the notes emphasize the ancient evidence; most of the thesis, secondary studies just cited tackle the issues addressed in this article. [] The fall of the Roman Republic has also generated vast quantities of mobile thesis proposal bibliography; see, esp., P.A. Brunt, The Fall of the concentration, Roman Republic and Related Essays (Oxford, 1988); M. Crawford and M. Beard, Rome in the Late Republic (Ithaca, 1985); F. Millar, The Crowd in Rome in the Late Republic (Ann Arbor, 1998); E. Gruen, The Last Generation of the Roman Republic (Berkeley, 1974); Syme, Rom. Rev . [] The lack of popular enthusiasm for Caesar's naked autocracy is reflected in application thesis a famous incident during the Lupercalia (15 February) in 44 BC. Caesar had twice been offered a royal diadem in descriptive friend front of the crowd.
The crowd, we hear, reacted badly to this spectacle, remaining largely silent, despite the presence of a pro-Caesar claque in their midst. Only when Caesar refused the crown did the crowd cheer wildly. See Dio 44.11-12; App. Mobile Application. B. On Non. Civ . 2.109; Plut. Caes . Mobile Thesis. 61-62. Suet. Caes . 79.2 only alludes to the incident. [] Ancient accounts of Augustus's birth and conventional source early life are seriously marred by application proposal fantastical prophesies of future greatness, so that the genesis vs thesis wordpress theme, historical reality is hard to weed out. He seems, however, to have lived a largely uneventful first nineteen years. See Dio 45.1-2; Suet. Aug . 1-8; Nic.
Aug . 2-5; Tac. Dial . 28.5 Cicero's letters provide the only contemporary evidence for Augustus's early career, and are indispensable for that, but provide little information on his early life. A note on names: Augustus was born C. Octavius, became C. Julius Caesar Octavianus (usually abbreviated Octavian in modern sources) in 44 BC, and was renamed yet again as Imperator Augustus Caesar in application proposal 27 BC. Following standard practice, I shall refer to him by his appropriate name in each period. [] Association with Caesar: Nic. Tree Best In Marathi. Aug . 7-12. Aftermath of murder: App.
B. Application Thesis. Civ . Genesis Wordpress Theme. 3.9-11. Octavian seems to mobile application have arrived in Italy in early April or late March: Cicero, in a letter from Astura dated 11 April, inquired of Atticus how it went ( Att . Gcse Chemistry Coursework Of Reaction Concentration. 14.5.3 = SB 359). Note that the influential Caesarian L. Munatius Plancus had taken note of the young Octavius prior to Caesar's murder, so the young man had not gone entirely unnoticed by the elite; see Cic. Fam . 10.24.5. [] For ancient narratives of the events here described, see App. B. Civ . 3.11-98; Dio 45.5.1-46.52.4; Nic. Aug . 16-31; Suetonius ( Aug . 8.3-12) presents a conflated and rather confused account. Augustus's own summary of application thesis this phase of his career ( RG 1.1) is restricted to the simple and tendentious assertion he successfully championed the liberty of the republic when it was oppressed by the tyranny of a faction. [] Technically, however, the adoption was not made official until October/November 43 BC. That is why, it seems, Cicero comments that, when he met Octavian at Puteoli on gcse coursework of reaction concentration, 22 April, 44 BC, his followers call him Caesar, but Philippus [Octavian's stepfather] does not, so neither do I ( Att . Mobile Thesis. 14.12.2 = SB 366); the Liberator M. Junius Brutus also refers to friend Octavian as Octavius (Cic.
Ad Brut . 17.5-6, 25.1, 2, 7, 8, 11; dated June and July 43 BC). In contrast, L. Application. Munatius Plancus, a Caesarian, calls Octavian Caesar in letters roughly contemporary with Brutus's (e.g., Cic. Fam . 10.23.6, 10.24.4-8). The political importance of the name was beyond doubt to contemporaries. [] Cicero first met Octavian in Naples on 19 April, 44 BC, one day after Octavian had arrived in paul the city ( Att . 14.10.3 = SB 364). A few days later, on 22 April, he had decided that Octavian's influence on events could not be good, since his supporters were threatening death to the Liberators ( Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366).
[] For his part, Cicero paid little attention to Octavius, at least initially: on 12 April, 44 BC he wrote to mobile thesis proposal Atticus ( Att . 14.6.1 = SB 360), As for Octavius -- it's neither here not there. [] Appian ( B. Civ . 3.14-21) puts windy speeches into on non source of energy both their mouths: Octavian asks for mobile application thesis his inheritance, Antony refuses by claiming the money is tied up in litigation, largely spent already, or not yet counted. In contrast, Dio (45.5.3) merely comments that Antony insulted Octavian, despite the latter's deference and failure to essay friend demand his inheritance. Regardless of the details, in both accounts the meeting was not successful. [] Cicero, in letters to mobile application proposal Atticus dated 11 and 18 May, 44 BC ( Att . 14.20.5 = SB 374, 14.21.4 = SB 375, and 15.2.3 = SB 379), makes reference to Octavian addressing a contio in Rome and preparing to give games (see Dio 45.6.4). C. Matius, an obscure but affluent Caesarian, saw to the games at Octavian's request (Cic. Fam . 11.28.6).
[] See App. B. Civ . 3.27, 30; Dio 45.9.3. [] All of this took place in October and November 44 BC, as Cicero's letters make plain ( Att . 16.8.1-2 = SB 418; Fam . 12.23.2). See also App. B. Civ . Of Reaction. 3.40-48; Dio 45.12. [] Cicero, however, had been from the mobile thesis proposal, outset doubtful about Octavian's nature and intentions; see Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366 (April 44 BC) and 16.9 = SB 419 (November 44 BC). Needless to uw madison thesis requirements say, it was also to the political benefit of the Liberators and their supporters (Cicero among them) to keep the Caesarian leadership quarrelling.
[] Cicero's speeches against Antony, called the Philippics , have survived. In Philippics 3-5 (dated 20 December, 44 BC - 1 January, 43 BC), Cicero secured Octavian's appointment as propraetor from the senate. See also Cic. Fam . 10.28.3 (dated 2 February, 43 BC) [] App. B. Civ . 3.49-73; Cic. Fam . Mobile Thesis. 11.8.2 (Cicero to thesis Decimus Brutus, dated late January, 43 BC), 10.30.4 (letter from Ser. Sulpicius Galba serving with consuls at thesis Mutina, dated 15 April, 43 BC), 10.33.3-4 (letter from friend essay C. Asinius Pollio, dated late May, 43 BC); Cic. Phil . 14; Dio 45.12-46.38. Cicero's quip, reported back to him by mobile Decimus Brutus in a letter dated 24 May, 43 BC ( Fam . 11.20.1) was that the youth [Octavian] should be praised, decorated, immortalized (the Latin-- laudandum, ornandum, tollendum --is deliberately ambiguous: tollere can mean both raise up and genesis vs thesis wordpress destroy). [] App.
B. Civ . 3.74-95; Cic. Fam . Mobile Application Thesis Proposal. 11.10.2, 11.13.1, 11.14.2 (correspondence to and from Decimus Brutus, dated May, 43 BC), 10.23.6 (letter from Plancus, dated 6 June, 43 BC). Octavian's election to thesis the consulship took place on mobile, 19 August (as attested in the Feriale Cumanum , InscIt 13.2.278ff.), though his demand for the consulship appears to have begun in June (Cic. Ad Brut . Uw Madison Requirements. 18.3); Dio 46.39-49. On Cassius and Brutus in the East, see App. Mobile Application. B. Civ . 3.26, 63, 77-79, 96; Dio 47.20-36. [] Overtures to Antony: App. B. Paul. Civ . 3.80-81. Meeting and formation of the triumvirate: App. B. Civ . Mobile Thesis Proposal. 3.96-4.3 (Appian places the meeting at Mutina); Dio 46.54.3-55.5. Paul Trocha Resume. Passage of the lex Titia : App.
B. Civ . 4.7; Dio 47.2.2. Mobile Proposal. The terminal date of the triumvirate is paul trocha resume, unequivocally established by application the Fasti Colotiani . On the legalities of the tree is my friend in marathi, Second Triumvirate, see Bleicken, Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat ; see also Millar, Triumvirate. [] See App. B. Civ . 4.8-9 (text of proclamation) and 4.10-51 (anecdotes of the proscribed); see also Dio 47.9-13. Death of application Cicero: App. B. Civ . 4.19; Dio 47.8.3-4; Plut. Tree Is My Best Friend Essay In Marathi. Cic. 46-49.
Plutarch ( Cic . 49.5) preserves the moving anecdote of Augustus, years later, unexpectedly confronted by his compliance in Cicero's murder. When visiting one of his grandsons, the fearful child attempted to conceal the book of Cicero he was reading. Augustus took the book, read it for some time, and gave it back to mobile the boy saying, A learned man, my boy, learned and a true patriot. Dio (47.8.1), Pliny ( HN 7.147), Plutarch ( Ant . Genesis Wordpress Theme. 21), Suetonius ( Aug . 27.1), and Velleius (2.66.1-3) unite in blaming the proscriptions mainly on mobile application, Antony (and Lepidus), the former public enemies out for revenge; there has to chemistry concentration be a suspicion of pro-Augustan retroactive finger-pointing here. (Perhaps the later tradition of Octavian's reluctance stems from apologia in Augustus's own Memoirs , now lost.) The final count of the dead is given by Appian ( B. Civ . 4.5) as 300 senators and 2,000 Knights. Southern (57-59) joins Kienast (35) in mobile application thesis arguing forcefully that the proscriptions were motivated by the mentality of the political purge, not financial need.
[] Africa: App. B. Civ . 4.53-56. Campaign of Philippi: App. B. Civ . 4.86-139; Dio 47.37-49. Octavian's limited role in the fighting: Dio 47.41.1-4; Pliny HN 7.148. Re-alignment of the triumviral provinces: App. B. Civ . 5.3, 12; Dio 48.1.2-3. (Cisalpine Gaul now ceased to be a province and was finally integrated into Italia.) [] On the depradations of the soldiers in Italy, see Dio 47.14.4-5. On this settlement, see Keppie, Colonisation , 58-69.
On the methods and impact of veteran settlement, see ibid., 87-133. The eighteen towns: App. B. Civ . 4.3 (Appian says the towns were remarkable for their wealth and essay on non source fine lands and houses). It should be noted that where the territory of a designated veteran colony proved insufficient for the requirements of mobile thesis settlement, the territory of neighboring towns would be encroached upon, occasionally to uw madison requirements the point of total subsumption (e.g., Caudium, entirely absorbed by the settlement at Beneventum). Thus, many more than the eighteen towns mentioned by Appian were affected by the settlement process. [] On the Perusine War, see App.
B. Civ . 5.14, 30-51; Dio 48.13-14 . Antony's complicity: App. B. Civ . 5.21-22; Dio 48.28. Execution of councilors: App. B. Mobile Application. Civ . 5.48; Dio 48.14.3. Acquisition of Gaul: App. B. Civ . 5.51, 53; Dio 48.20.1, 3. [] Threatened war and Pact of wordpress Brundisium: App. B. Civ.
5.52-65; Dio 48.28-30. [] Career of Sextus: App. B. Civ . 2.105, 122, 3.4, 4.25, 36-54 (passim), 83-85, bk. 5 (passim); Dio 47.36.4, 47.49.4, 48.16-20. Date of appointment of Sextus to the prefecture of the thesis proposal, fleet: Cic. Phil . 13.13. Gcse Chemistry Rates Concentration. Sextus's pact with Antony: App. Mobile Thesis. B. Civ . 5.56. Treaty of Misenum/Puteoli: App. B. Civ . 5.67-74 (Appian places the meeting at Puteoli); Dio 48.36-38.
The scene at the latter was almost comical (as described by Appian): Antony and Octavian sat on a platform built over the sea close to the land; Sextus had his own, more seaward platform with his ships behind. A narrow strip of water separated the two platforms. Negotiations were then shouted across the sea until agreement was reached. On Sextus Pompeius, see also Hadas, Sextus Pompey . In Syme's view ( Rom. Rev ., 221), the Peace of Puteoli enlarged the Triumvirate to include a fourth partner, which is something of an overstatement, given its evidently expedient nature. [] Collapse of Misenum/Puteoli agreement and war: App. B. Civ . 5.77-92; Dio 48.45.4-49 . Treaty of Tarentum and renewal of triumvirate: App. B. Civ . 5.93-95; Dio 48.54.1-6. The issue of the duration of the second period of the triumvirate has proven difficult: was it renewed at Tarentum (September?, 37 BC) retroactively from 1 January, 37 BC (to end on 31 December, 33 BC) or did it run directly from September(?), 37 BC (to end sometime toward the end of 32 BC)? The more convincing case is on the side of the retroactive view: see the excellent summary in Benario, Octavian's Status.
See also Bleicken, Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat , 65-82; id., Augustus , 269-70; W. Eder, Augustus and the Power of Tradition: The Augustan Principate as Binding Link Between Republic and Empire, in Raaflaub and Toher, 97-98; Jones, 31; Kienast, 55; Southern, 94. In all likelihood, Republican legalities played a lesser part in the considerations of the time than the observable reality of the triumvirate's dominance and, therefore, in the actual operation of its power; see below, n. 29. On the growth of Octavian's party at this time, see Syme, Rom. Rev ., 227-42. [] Final campaign against descriptive my best friend Sextus: App. B. Civ . 5.96-144; Dio 49.1-18.
Lepidus: App. B. Civ . Mobile Application. 5.123; Dio 49.11.2-12.4; see also Weigel, Lepidus . Lepidus's rash actions were, in Syme's words, sparked by a strange delusion ( Rom. Rev ., 232). These events in Sicily were capped by unrest among the legions there, with the soldiers demanding rewards for service. Gcse Rates Of Reaction Concentration. Octavian discharged 20,000 of them on the spot and promised the rest bounties after campaigns in Illyricum; see Appian and thesis proposal Dio locc. citt.; Keppie, Colonisation , 69-73. [] One of the honors allegedly given to Octavian after Naulochus, late in 36 BC, was the tribunician power (App. B. Civ . Chemistry Coursework Of Reaction. 5.132). However, Augustus later reckoned his tribunician power from 23 BC, which settles the argument decisively: he did not get it in 36 BC.
Dio is probably correct (49.15.6) in saying that he was given a tribune-like protection from insult or injury ( sacrosanctitas ). Refusal of the pontificate: App. B. Civ . 5.131; Dio 49.15.3; Suet. Aug . 31.1. Burning of the records: App. B. Civ . 3.132. [] Antony's wars in the East: Dio 49.19-30; Plut. Ant . 37-52. Octavian in Illyricum: App. Ill . 12-28. Antony's behavior and the Donations of Alexandria (much of it no doubt drawn from pro-Augustus propaganda): Dio 49.41, Plut.
Ant . 54.3-6 (Donations); Dio 50.4-5 (behavior). Cleopatra's ambitions: Dio 50.4.1, 5.4. Rising tensions: Plut. Application Thesis. Ant . Genesis Vs Thesis Wordpress Theme. 54-55. Agrippa's aedileship and munificence instigated by mobile thesis proposal Octavian: Dio 49.43.1-4; Pliny HN 36.121; Roddaz, 145-57 (aedileship); Suet. Aug . 29.4-5; Vell. Vs Thesis Theme. Pat. 2.89.4 (munificence).
[] On the date of the expiration of the triumviral powers, see above n. 25. Application Thesis. It is my opinion that many modern scholars, wedded to contemporary paradigms of legally-sanctioned government, have overstated the importance of legalities in establishing the thesis requirements, powers of Roman Republican officials; precedent, ritual, and appearance were just as important, if not more so. Certainly traditional procedures and practices were used during the mobile application proposal, Republic to legitimate magisterial authority, but many of these niceties had fallen by the wayside in paul the years since Pompey and Caesar. Time and application again in the period after Sulla extraordinary powers and privileges had been voted to generals in recognition of their de facto supremacy. Gcse Chemistry Coursework Of Reaction. So too now, with Octavian. Technically, his triumviral powers had lapsed. No one, however, not even the Antonian consuls for 32 BC, C. Sosius and Cn.
Domitius Ahenobarbus, were going to point that out publicly; although the content of Sosius's anti-Octavian speech of 1 January, 32 BC has not survived, that he focused on the expiration of the triumviral powers is unlikely, since the lapse applied to application thesis proposal Antony as well. Genesis Wordpress. The reality of Octavian's pre-eminence in the West overshadowed the strict legalities of his position. On ritual, ceremony, and appearance in mobile thesis proposal Republican magistracy, see D.J. Gargola, Lands, Laws and Gods: Magistrates and Ceremony in the Regulation of Public Lands in Republican Rome (Chapel Hill, 1995), esp. Uw Madison. 16-24; R. Stewart, Public Office in Early Rome: Ritual Procedure and Political Practice (Ann Arbor, 1998). The 1 January meeting of the senate and mobile aftermath: Dio 50.2.3-7.
Reading Antony's will: Dio 50.3.1-4.1, Plut. Ant . 58.3-4. Oath: RG 25.2; Dio 50.6.3-4 (where the oath is unmentioned but implicit); Suet. Aug . 17.2. Augustus himself ( RG , loc. Trocha Resume. cit.) states that the oath was voluntary ( sponte sua ), but it may not have been (see Dio and mobile application thesis proposal Suetonius, locc. citt.).
Syme ( Rom. Rev ., 284) was convinced the oath came before the denunciation of gcse chemistry coursework Antony in the senate and the declaration of war and, in a rousing phrase, believed the oath riveted the shackles of [Italy's] servitude. [] Campaign at Actium: Dio 50.10-35; Plut. Ant . 61-68.3; Vell. Pat. 2.84-85; Carter, Battle of Actium . The forces on each side were monumental: about 30 legions apiece, and Antony had 500 warships to Octavian's 250 (Plut. Ant . 61). For the later reception of the Actian campaign, see Gurval, Actium and Augustus . [] Aftermath of Actium: Dio 51.1-17; Plut. Ant . 68.4-86. Date of the fall of Alexandria: Fasti Praenestini and Amiterini ( InscrIt . 13.2.107 and 13.2.185).
Cleopatra, according to Plutarch ( Ant . 78-86.3), was taken alive by Octavian, who planned to display her at thesis proposal his triumph. But she had an asp smuggled into a banquet she was holding, hidden among a plate of figs. (The asp bit her on the arm, not the thesis requirements, breast, according to Plutarch [ Ant . 86.1-3] and Dio [51.14.1-2].) The revolt or plot of Lepidus is a shadowy affair: Vell. Pat. 2.88; Dio 54.15.4; Suet. Aug . 19.1. [] Settling affairs in the East: Dio 51.18. Veteran settlements: Keppie, Colonisation , 73-82. Wealth of Egypt used for settlements: Dio 51.17.6-8.
Three triumphs: Dio 51.21.6-9. Application Thesis. By universal consent I was in complete control of affairs: RG 34.1. Tree Best In Marathi. On 11 January, 29 BC the doors of the Temple of Janus in Rome were closed, symbolizing that the entire Roman world was at peace (though Dio is proposal, quick to point out the various wars still in progress in diverse locales): it had only of reaction, happened twice before in all of Roman history (Dio 51.20.4-5). Such a symbolic gesture must have had a powerful effect on those who witnessed or heard about it and reinforced the notion of Octavian as the bringer of peace. Honors: Dio 51.19-21. [] None of this is meant to mobile suggest that the essay conventional source of energy, system later called the Principate was, in application thesis proposal its entirety, planned out and effected according to a pre-ordained blueprint, but rather that Octavian, in the run up to tree is my essay the First Settlement, must have given careful thought to his position and acted accordingly.
That attitude, in application fact, had marked his behavior from the very outset of his career and was encapsulated in gcse chemistry coursework his favorite aphorisms, Rush slowly ( festina lente ) and Whatever is done well enough is proposal, done quickly enough ( sat celeriter fieri quidquid fiat satis bene ; see, for both, Suet. Paul. Aug . 25.4). These are the mottoes of a patient and application careful planner. Nevertheless, that the Principate emerged piecemeal over almost three decades was demonstrated long ago by E.T. Essay Conventional Of Energy. Salmon in his seminal article, The Evolution of Augustus's Principate; see also Lacey, Augustus and the Principate . Need for a rector : Cic. Mobile Thesis. Rep . Tree Best Friend Essay In Marathi. 2.51; 5.5, 6; 6.13. As consul in 28 BC, Octavian had annulled all the mobile application, illegal acts of the triumvirate, effectively wiping the slate clean in that department (Dio 53.2.6); his behavior in this year, with Agrippa as his colleague, was generally traditional, generous, and exemplary (Dio 53.1-2). A new beginning was being heralded, support for it organized, and its nature indicated: later, Augustus himself considered the events of 28 and 27 BC as part of a single process of transferring the republic from gcse coursework rates concentration my power to the dominion of the senate and people of mobile proposal Rome ( RG 34.1).
[] First Settlement: Dio 53.3-17.1; RG 34.1-2; Suet. Aug . 28.1; Vell. 2.89. Settlement staged: Dio 53.2.7. Thesis Requirements. Division of provinces: Dio 53.12; see also Millar, The Emperor, the Senate and the Roman Provinces. Debate over legal status of Octavian: Southern, 111-13.
Imperium proconsulare is more likely to mobile thesis proposal have been granted for ten years than imperium consulare , which Octavian already held by virtue of his consulship: or was it expected he would be consul every year for the following ten years? On the settlement, see, e.g., Bleicken, 315-42; Rich, Cassius Dio ; Southern, 111-17; Syme, Rom. Gcse. Rev . Mobile Proposal. 313-30. [] Travels of Augustus: Dio 53.22.5. Illness and recovery: Dio 53.30.3; Hor. Epist . 1.15; Pliny HN 25.77; Suet.
Aug. 81.1. Conspiracy: Dio 54.3.2-3 (who dates the event to 22 BC, so breaking the direct link between it and the Settlement of is my essay in marathi 23); Vell. Mobile Thesis Proposal. Pat. Vs Thesis Wordpress. 2.91.2; the details are perceptively discussed by Raaflaub and Samons, Opposition to Augustus, 425-27; see also Rich, Dio Cassius , 168-69.
Second Settlement: Dio 53.32; RG 10.1; Suet. Aug . 28.1. For the Cyrenaica decrees, see below n. 48. [] Refusal of dictatorship et al.: Dio 54.1.3-4; RG 5.1-2; Vell. Pat. 2.89.5; Suet. Aug . 52.
Cura annonae : Dio 54.1.3. Ius primae relationis : Dio 54.3.3. Privileges of 19 BC: Dio 54.10.3-7; RG 6.1; Suet. Aug . 27.5. Father of the Country: Dio 55.10.10; RG 35.1; Suet. Aug . 58. Mobile Application Thesis. Priesthoods: RG 7.3. Auctoritas : RG 34.3; see also Cic. Is My Best Friend. Off . 2.2; Magdelain, Auctoritas Principis ; Lanza, Auctoritas Principis ; a useful overview is now Galinsky, 10-41.
Dio (55.34.2) reports that in AD 8, when he had become too infirm to attend elections in person, Augustus would post the names of the mobile thesis, candidates for office he favored; it's hard to imagine such candidates failing. Galinsky (42-79) surveys the establishment of the Principate with emphasis on the terminology of essay my best power Augustus uses to mobile describe it. [] Continuity of Principate: Suet. Aug . 28.1-2. [] Before marrying Livia Drusilla in 39 BC, he had been married to paul Clodia, stepdaughter of Antonius ( PIR 2 C 1057), from 43-41 BC; and then to Scribonia ( PIR S 220), from 40-39 BC. Appearance at application thesis proposal triumph: Suet. Tib . 6.4.
Marriage: Dio 53.27.5. Aedile/legal age: Dio 53.28.3. Successor in power: Vell. Pat. 2.93.1. Deathbed scene: Dio 53.30.1-2; Suet. Aug . 28.1. Death and burial of Marcellus: Dio 53.30.4. Livia 's rumored hand in his demise (Dio 53.33.4.) is entirely unproven; that summer in Rome was considered particularly unhealthy and death by illness was widespread (Dio loc. cit.).
Marcellus was not adopted by requirements Augustus: the application thesis, RG (21.1) refers to him as my son-in-law as does Marcellus's epitaph (Braund, 27). [] Octavius in Caesar's triumph: see n. Uw Madison Requirements. 5. Octavius granted right of standing early: App. Application Proposal. B. Descriptive My Best. Civ . 3.51. [] Agrippa goes East: Dio 53.31.2-4; Pliny HN 7.149; Tac. Ann . 14.53.3; Suet. Aug . 66.3, Tib . 10.3. Agrippa's power in the east: Gray, Imperium of application thesis proposal M. Paul Trocha Resume. Agrippa. Mobile Proposal. Maecenas's quip: Dio, 54.6.5. Marriage: Dio 54.6.5; Suet. Paul Trocha. Aug . 63.1. Agrippa's powers: Dio 54.12.4-5 (18 BC), 54.28.1 (13 BC).
[] Coins: RIC nos. 407, 408, 414. Gaius and Lucius Caesar: Dio 54.18.1, Tac. Ann . 1.3. Mobile Thesis. Tiberius and Drusus' advancement: see DIR's Tiberius . As to the Regency or paired-succession propositions (for which, see, respectively, R. Seager, Tiberius [London, 1972], 18-22, 24-26, 29-38, recently restated in Southern, 162, 168; and gcse B. Levick, Tiberius the Politician (London, 1976), 19-67; ead., Drusus Caesar), what ensured that Agrippa the regent would step down when required to do so? What mechanisms realistically existed for depriving an application proposal incumbent regent or princeps of his powers? Indeed, if Agrippa did not step down but died in office, what makes him a regent and tree is my best in marathi not an emperor?
The paired accession idea is no more convincing, since Augustus was under no illusions as to the extreme inadvisability, if not impossibility, of attempting to share supreme power (see Suet. Aug . 28.1): his own career as triumvir was illustration enough of that. As it was, joint accessions were not seriously entertained until the mobile application proposal, second century and on non source beyond, when the Principate was well established, and thesis most were unsuccessful. That Augustus was blind to the danger of of reaction concentration presenting two equally qualified and favored candidates to the armed forces is all but inconceivable. [] Death of Agrippa: Dio 54.28.2-3, 29. Marriage of Tiberius and thesis proposal Julia: Dio 54.31.2. Paul. For more detailed discussion of mobile these events with reference to the ancient material involved, see the DIR's Tiberius , C. and L. Caesar, Germanicus , Agrippa Postumus. See also, Birch, Settlement; Levick, Drusus Caesar; Seager, Tiberius , 35-38.
Germanicus, the son of Tiberius' brother Drusus, was himself a Claudian but his marriage to Agrippina (Augustus's granddaughter) offered hope of a Julian heir in the fourth generation. [] Fall of Julia the Elder: Dio 55.10.12-16; Suet. Aug . Wordpress. 65.1, Tib . 11.4; Tac. Ann . 1.53.1; Vell. Pat. Application Proposal. 2.100.2-5. For the political scheming view, see Levick, Julians and Claudians.
Fall of descriptive my best friend Agrippa Postumus: Dio 55.32.1-2; Suet. Aug . 65.1, 65.4; Levick, Abdication; Jameson, Augustus and Agrippa Postumus. Fall of mobile Julia the Younger: Suet. Aug . Friend Essay. 19.1, 65.1. [] For a concise account of the Roman army under Augustus, see Keppie, Making of the Roman Army , 145-71; also Bleicken, 541-63, Jones, 110-16. On the praetorians, see Durry, Cohortes Prétoriennes , esp. 65-89. [] On Augustus's campaigns, see RG 26-27; Keppie, loc. cit. in mobile thesis proposal n. 44. On the Varan disaster, see Schlüter, The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. For an overview of Augustus's foreign policy, see Gruen, Imperial Policy.
On the bigger question of wordpress theme frontiers and imperial growth, see Isaac, Limits of Empire , esp. 372-418; Whittaker, Frontiers of the Roman Empire , esp. 10-98 (who includes discussion of ancient concepts of mobile thesis space and cartography). On the reactive nature of ancient government, see Millar, Roman Empire and its Neighbours , esp. 52-80. For the stations of the legions on is my friend, Augustus's death, see n. 48.
[] On the Crassus affair, see Dio 52.23.2-27.3; Livy 4.19-20 (the previous awards of spolia opima were to A. Cornelius Cossus in the late fifth century BC and M. Claudius Marcellus in mobile application 222 BC). On Gallus, see Dio 53.23.5-24.1. The inscription ( ILS 8995) is worth quoting: C. Cornelius Gallus, son of Cnaeus, Roman knight, appointed the first Prefect of Alexandria and of Egypt after its kings had been defeated by Caesar, son of a god; he [Gallus] was twice victor in pitched battles during the coursework rates of reaction concentration, Theban revolt, within 15 days, in which he defeated the enemy; he took by mobile application assault five cities (Boresos, Coptus, Ceramice, Diospolis Magna, and paul trocha Opheium) and captured the leaders of proposal their revolts; he led an army beyond the cataphract of the Nile, into which region arms had not previously been borne either by on non source the Roman people or by the kings of Egypt; he took Thebes, the shared fear of all the kings (of Egypt); he received ambassadors of the Ethiopian king at Philae and received that king into his protection; he appointed a ruler over thesis the Ethiopian region of Triacontaschoenus. He [Gallus] gave and dedicated this monument to the ancestral gods and the Nile, his helper. Best In Marathi. A useful overview of both incidents is provided by Southern (115-17).
Augustus arrogated for himself victories won by his generals: the successes of Tiberius and Drusus on the Rhine and Danube in 12 and 11 BC caused him to add two imperatorial acclamations to his titles; Tiberius and Drusus got none (Dio 54.33.5). Proposal. Agrippa refusing triumphs: Dio 53.23.4 (general modesty of Agrippa), 54.11.6 (over the theme, Cantabri), 54.24.7 (over the Bosporus). [] For a useful overview of this subject, see Lintott, Imperium Romanum , 111-28. On the consilium , instituted between 27 and mobile thesis proposal 18 BC, see Dio 53.21.3-5 (quote at 53.21.6); Suet. Aug . 35.4; Crook, Consilium Principis . On the role of the imperial senate, see Talbert, Senate of theme Imperial Rome , esp.
Part Three: Functions. On suffect consuls, see ibid., 202-7. Newly-created positions: Suet. Aug . Thesis Proposal. 37. On the trocha, equestrians, see Demougin, Ordre Equestre . The rosy picture of imperial rule painted by Velleius Paterculus (of equestrian status) reflects, perhaps, not only Velleius's sycophantic personality but also a genuine sense of gratitude toward the imperial regime on the part of his class as a whole. Note also Syme, Augustan Aristocracy . [] Cyrenaica decrees: SEG 9 (1944) 8 = FIRA 1.68. Mobile Application Thesis. The disposition of the empire's territories on Augustus's death was as follows: Territory Status Type of descriptive my best friend Governor Legions. Baetica Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Lusitania Imperial legat.
Aug. Mobile Thesis. (ex-praetor) - Tarrocensis Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 3. Narbonensis Public (23 BC) proconsul (ex-praetor) - Aquitania Imperial legat. Rates. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Belgica Imperial legat. Aug. Mobile Thesis. (ex-praetor) - Lugdunensis Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Germany (after AD 9, the area west of the Rhine) Military zone n/a 2 legat. Aug. (ex-consuls) 8 (4 and 4) (Upper and Lower)
Cottian Imperial equest. pref. - Maritime Imperial equest. pref. - Upper Danube region. Raetia Imperial equest. pref. - Noricum Imperial equest. pref. - Lower Danube region/northern Balkans. Illyricum Imperial (11 BC) legat. Vs Thesis Wordpress Theme. Aug. (ex-consul) 2. Pannonia Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 3.
Moesia Imperial legat. Aug. Mobile Proposal. (ex-consul) 2. Macedonia Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Achaea Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Thrace Client kingdom - - Asia Public proconsul (ex-consul) - Bythinia-Pontus Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Galatia Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Lycia Free federation - - Pontus Client kingdom - - Cappadocia Client kingdom - - Several client principalities - - Syria Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 4. Judaea Imperial equest. pref. - Several client principalities - - Egypt Imperial equest. pref.
2. Cyrenaeca Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Africa Public proconsul (ex-consul) 1. Mauretania Client Kingdom - - Sicily Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Sardinia Imperial (AD 6) equest. pref pro descriptive my best friend legato - Corsica Imperial (AD 6) equest. Application. pref pro legato - Cyprus Public (23 BC) proconsul (ex-praetor) - Crete was part of Cyrenaeca. [] For a concise overview of Augustus's arrangement and administration of the provinces, see Jones, 94-109. See also Bleicken, 391-438; Eck, Verwaltung , 1.83-158. In the regions of Augustus's military activity, of course, matters were not so pleasant; see Dio 56.16.3 on paul trocha, the comment of Bato, leader of the Pannonian revolt of AD 6-9, that the Romans were responsible for the war, since you send as guardians of your flocks not dogs or shepherds, but wolves. Sulla in the East: Plut. Sulla 12.3-9 (pilfering of Greece), 22.5 (indemnity from Mithridates), 25.2 (vast fine extorted from Asian communities). Caesar in Spain and Gaul: Plut. Caes . 12.4 (Spain), 29.3-4.
On Augustus's image, see Zanker's seminal work, The Power of Images . [] There remains to be written a comprehensive account of Augustus's legislation and social programmes; most of the standard biographies contain pertinent chapters or sections of application chapters (e.g., Jones, 131-43; Southern, 146-52). Paul Trocha. On the marriage laws, see Mette-Dittman, Ehegesetze . On the status symbols of the equestrians, see Kolb, Status-symbolik. Application Thesis Proposal. A good example of his stiffening of the social hierarchy was the regulation of trocha resume seating arrangements at spectacles by social class, enforced empire-wide: see Suet. Aug . Mobile Application Thesis Proposal. 44.1; Rawson, Discrimina Ordinum. Legislation on manumission and freedmen: Bradley, Slaves and Masters , 84-95. Augustus's private foibles: Suet. Gcse Concentration. Aug . Proposal. 68-71. [] On the imperial cult, see the still classic study of Taylor, Divinity . For regional studies, see Fishwick, Imperial Cult (on the West) and Price, Rituals and Power (on the East). On the on non conventional source of energy, growth of the cult in Augustus's lifetime, see Galinsky, 312-31; Ostrow, Augustales ; Pollini, Man or God. Thesis Proposal. On the contemporary worship of Augustus's numen , see, e.g., Hor.
Epist . 2.1.15; Ovid Trist . 3.8.13. [] Quote: Dio 56.30.3; Suet. Essay Conventional Source Of Energy. Aug . Mobile Application Thesis. 28.3. Building projects: RG 19-21, 24. Augustus's building activity and paul trocha resume his encouragement of others to munificence: Suet. Aug . 28.2-29.5; Vell. Pat.
2.89.4. A succinct survey of the Augustan building programme in mobile application proposal Rome remains Ward-Perkins, Roman Imperial Architecture , 21-44. Gcse Coursework Of Reaction. On the much-studied Ara Pacis, see RG 12.2; Dio 54.25.1-4; recent analyses include Conlin, Artists of the Ara Pacis ; Galinsky, 141-55. Mobile Application Thesis Proposal. For a survey of the varied artistic achievements of the period, see Galinsky, 141-224; Kaiser Augustus und die verlorene Republik . [] On the literature of the conventional source, period, consult any standard history of Latin literature (e.g., the Cambridge History of Classical Literature , vol. 2, ed. E.J. Kenney, ); for a concise overview, see Galinsky, 225-87.
On Maecenas, see Williams, Did Maecenas 'Fall from mobile application Favor'? (note also the individual chapters in Raaflaub and Toher treating Livy, Vergil, Horace, and Ovid). For the definitive presentation of the state-controlled model of Augustan literature, see Syme, Rom. Rev ., 459-75. For more moderated views, see., e.g., Galinsky, passim (esp. 229-34).
My Pompeian: Tac. Ann . 4.34.4 (the anecdote, ironically, appears in the context of the trial of a later historian, A. Cremutius Cordus, charged with maiestas under Tiberius in gcse AD 25 for praising Brutus and Cassius in his history). [] Withdrawal: Dio 55.33.5, 55.34.2, 56.26.2-3, 56.28.1-2; see also Southern, 181-90. Tiberius's position: Suet. Tib . 21.1; Vell. Pat. 2.121.1. Livia 's alleged involvement: Dio 56.30. Mobile Application Thesis Proposal. Death and burial: Dio 56.29-42; Suet. Aug . 98-101. Will: Dio 56.32; Suet.
Aug . 101.4. [] Original position of the RG : RG pr.; Suet. Aug . 101.4. ). For a recent analysis, see Ramage, Nature and Purpose . Copyright 1999, Garrett G. My Best Friend. Fagan. This file may be copied on the condition that the entire contents, including the header and this copyright notice, remain intact. Updated: 5 July 2004.
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How to Write an Evaluation Paper with Sample Essays. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Evaluation essays are just like reviews. They judge whether something is mobile proposal, good or bad, better or worse than something comparable.
We are familiar with this sort of writing if we've read book, movie, restaurant, or product reviews. Wordpress. Evaluation papers can be serious or funny, earnest or sarcastic. We all love to read the review of application thesis a really bad movie or restaurant experience. Trocha Resume. If you like to write satire, this can be a great opportunity to display your humor. Chances are you will have a great time, and so will your reader. Your topic can be something you've experienced once or many times. Keep in mobile thesis proposal mind that you will write a better paper if you: Have a strong opinion—positive or negative—about this topic. Choose something you've experienced recently or that you can review again before you write your paper.
Know a lot about this type of experience. Use the following list of categories to brainstorm ideas for what you might want to tree is my best in marathi evaluate. Finding Criteria for Evaluation Essays. To turn your opinion into an evaluation, you will need to use criteria to judge your subject. What are criteria?
Criteria are the parts of your topic that you will judge as good or bad, better or worse than something else. How can you find criteria? Criteria are the parts of the thing you are evaluating. Here are some examples of criteria: movie criteria : plot, actors, scenery, score, directing, chemistry between actors, humor. restaurant criteria: service, atmosphere, food quality, taste, value, price. website criteria: ease of navigation, design, visuals, writing, content. Finding the best criteria for your evaluation: In order to do this kind of mobile writing well, you need to determine what sort of gcse chemistry coursework of reaction concentration a topic you are evaluating. If it is thesis, a movie, then what genre is it: horror, romance, drama, etc.?
Then you need to decide what would make an excellent movie in that genre in your opinion. For example, you may decide that a good romantic comedy has to genesis vs thesis wordpress theme have three things: humor, surprising plot twists, and actors you enjoy getting to know. Mobile Proposal. Next, you will evaluate the movie you have chosen to see how well it matches those criteria, giving specific examples of how it does or does not fulfill your expectations of an excellent romantic comedy. In order to evaluate something, you need to compare it with the best example of that particular thing. So, to best essay in marathi help you develop your topic into an essay, there are two important questions to ask when you are choosing your topic to evaluate: First question: What category of a thing is it?
Second question: What is the thesis ideal example of chemistry of reaction something in that category? What category is it? For the best evaluation essay, you want to compare your topic with things that are very similar, so try to narrow the category as much as possible. Mobile Thesis. To get there, you want to keep on asking the question, What kind is it? What category does McDonald's fit into? Answer to first question : Restaurant. (What kind of restaurant?) Fast food restaurant. (Better, but what kind of fast food?) Hamburger-serving fast food restaurant. (This is theme, what you want!)
So if you were evaluating McDonald's, you would want to application thesis proposal compare it to other fast food restaurants that mostly serve hamburgers. Now the rates of reaction concentration second question: What is the ideal example of something in that category? What makes that example better than others? Thinking about what you consider to be the very best example of something in the category of mobile application thesis proposal what you are reviewing can help you decide what criteria you will use, and also what judgement you can make. For example, here is a list of criteria my students have come up with for an ideal burger fast food restaurant: looks clean serves food fast makes it easy to order has great fries has options on the menu offers large drinks with free refills serves juicy burgers with lots of grease doesn't cost a lot of paul resume money. No two people will come up with exactly the proposal same list, but most restaurant reviews look at the following criteria: Answer to second question: A great fast food burger joint offers great service, atmosphere, and food at essay my best friend a fair cost.
Now you know what your paper is going to application be about how close McDonald's comes to this ideal. Is This an Effective Advertisement? Using the vs thesis wordpress theme list of criteria above, we can make a very fast outline for an essay about an mobile proposal, imaginary fast food hamburger restaurant called Bob's Burgers: Thesis Statement : While you may have to essay wait a while to mobile thesis get your meal at Bob's Burgers, that is because everyone finds the is my best essay meal is worth the wait; Bob's Burgers offers not only thesis, great service, but a fun atmosphere for eating with friends or family, terrific food, and a good value for the price. Topic sentence for paragraph 1: Service : Bobs Burgers offers great service that makes you feel at home. Food served quickly Easy to order Friendly Not pushy They get the order correct. Topic sentence for paragraph 2: Atmosphere : Walking into Bob's, you know you will enjoy eating there. Looks clean Attractive colors Interesting pictures or other decorations Comfortable tables and chairs. Topic sentence for requirements paragraph 3: Food: Most importantly, Bob's burgers are the best in application proposal town. Juicy burgers with lots of grease Many choices for toppings, including grilled onions, mushrooms, and peppers Small or large burgers Have great fries One downside: No options for those who don't like burgers.
Topic sentence for my best friend paragraph 4: Value : While Bob's doesn't have the cheapest meals, they do offer a good value for the price. Quality ingredients Burgers and fries fill you up Toppings on burgers are free Large drinks with free refills. Using this quick outline, most of you could probably write your own essay on Bob's or another fast food hamburger joint pretty easily. Comparison/Contrast: Evaluate your subject by comparing it to application proposal one of the genesis wordpress theme best of that genre (use something everyone would know to save time). You will not do an thesis, extended comparison, but just use the comparison as a lead-off into your own judgment. Expectations Unfulfilled: This is especially easy to is my friend do for this essay type. Use the intro to describe what you were anticipating before seeing the subject, then describe how the subject was either better or worse than you expected. Frame : Use a description of the subject to frame the mobile proposal essay. That way you get right into the action. Then break off half-way through to keep your reader in suspense. Give your evaluation and then conclude with the end of your frame.
Define Genre and Compare: In this essay, you would start out by describing the typical expectations of whatever subject you have (ex: rock album, romantic movie, baseball game, jazz club). After describing the “typical,” you will then tell how your subject either exemplifies the genre or deviates from the essay my best norm. Probably this type of mobile thesis organization is best used for a satire or for a subject that deliberately tries to essay break out of the normal expectations of that genre. Analysis by Criteria: In this type of paper, you introduce the subject, tell why you are evaluating it, what the competition is, and how you gathered your data. Then you order your criteria chronologically, spatially, or in order of mobile proposal importance. Chronological Order : You might use this for all or part of your paper. It means telling what happened in the order it happened. This is particularly useful for a performance or restaurant review. Causal Analysis: This measures the uw madison requirements effect on the audience. How does this subject cause a certain effect? Analysis Focused on the Visual: This organization plan works well for analyzing works of thesis art and pictures.
The analysis focuses on composition, arrangement, focus, foreground and background, symbols, cultural references, and key features of that visual genre. It also notices the tools of the artist: color, shape, texture, pattern, and media. This paper analyzes these details in order to genesis vs thesis theme explain how they are related to the cultural and historical context of the work of art and then tells how they relate to mobile application proposal the overall meaning of the piece. Is My In Marathi. Be sure to evaluate if and why this piece is effective or ineffective. Analysis Focused on application thesis, the Social Context or the Story : This type of evaluation takes an image and analyzes how it is effective for a particular point. Trocha. Usually, the image is about a controversial or emotionally charged cultural or historical event. Thesis. Your analysis can describe how this image either demonstrates or contributes to the emotion or debate surrounding the event. It may be that the image is ironic or misleading. The only problem with our example above is that it is so easy to write, and so it might seem rather trite and unoriginal.
How can you make your essay stand out? Describe vividly, using interesting verbs, adjectives, and adverbs. Make the reader feel that they have been to the restaurant with you. Use the introduction and conclusion to entice the thesis reader. Introduction and Conclusion Ideas. Use a conversation about the food.
Start with your expectations and end with your actual experience (telling whether it met expectations or overturned them). Talk about popularity or history of the restaurant. Mobile. Use statistics of people eating fast food more. Discuss the controversy about fast food and obesity and health. See the chart below for more ideas. How to Connect Introduction and Conclusion. 1. Present the paul trocha Subject in an Interesting Way. Give the right amount of detail : Be sure to explain clearly what it is and mobile proposal, provide enough information for chemistry coursework rates of reaction concentration the reader to agree with your judgment. Sometimes movie reviews leave the mobile thesis reader in suspense as to is my the outcome of the story. Application Thesis. You will have to decide what you want to tell. Help readers agree with your evaluation : One reason people like reviews is because they help them decide whether they would like that subject themselves, so make sure to give your reader enough details to decide if they agree.
Write a review rather than a summary: Make sure that the summary of the subject is no more than a third of is my friend essay your paper. The main part of your paper is supposed to be the evaluation, not the summary. It is possible to do the summary separately and then do the evaluation, or you can summarize as part of your evaluation. Application Proposal. Make sure what you are evaluating is essay on non source, clear: It is application, often effective to use an introduction which describes the subject or gets the reader involved in the action quickly. 2. Make a Clear, Authoritative Judgment (2/3 of paper) Thesis sentence should tell exactly what you think. You might want to foreshadow your body by including the main reasons for genesis vs thesis theme your evaluation in that thesis sentence. (Ex: The movie XXX is perfect for mobile application proposal a college student's study break because of the hilarious comedy, intense action, and source, fantastic visual effects.) Define the audience you are addressing and the genre of the subject (in the above example, the mobile application thesis proposal audience is essay conventional of energy, college students and the genre is mobile proposal, action comedy). Create a three-column-log to help you make notes for uw madison requirements your paper. Separate your notes into three columns for criteria, evidence, and thesis proposal, judgment. Pick at least three criteria to talk about in your essay. For example, for vs thesis wordpress a mystery play, it could be three of the following: plot, setting, costumes, acting of main characters, acting of minor characters, the pace of the mobile application thesis action, or the unveiling of the mystery.
Be opinionated! Passionate reviews are always more interesting to read. Use vivid nouns and is my friend essay in marathi, engaging verbs. Have a strong judgment about how this subject is either better or worse than similar subjects. Your judgment can be mixed. Application Proposal. For example, you might say the concert on the mall was a good mix of bands and that the new songs from the main act were energetically played, but that the sound equipment was poorly set up and tended to make it hard to hear the singers.
Order the tree essay in marathi body paragraphs from least to most important. Back up your opinions with concrete examples and convincing evidence. 3. Argue for Your Judgment. As you state each of your judgments, you need to mobile application give reasons to chemistry coursework concentration back them up that are specific, interesting, and convincing. For evidence, describe the subject, quote, use personal anecdotes, or compare and contrast with a similar subject. Proposal. In some cases it is descriptive friend, effective to counter-argue, if you disagree with what most people think. For example, if your subject is very popular and mobile application thesis proposal, you think it is terrible, you may want to gcse coursework of reaction concentration state what most people think and tell why you disagree. This exercise is mobile application, intended to help you prepare to write your paper. As you answer these questions, you will generate ideas that you can use for your paper. What is the topic (subject) you are going to evaluate?
Do a short description of it in a list or paragraph. What category is your topic? Be as specific and narrow as possible. Who might be interested in this? This is your audience for the paper. What does this audience already know? What do they want or expect from this thing? (This can help you develop criteria) What criteria can you use for evaluating your topic? (Think of gcse chemistry coursework rates concentration what is proposal, most important, or what can be either good or bad, or what parts there are of your topic) What did you expect before you experienced your topic? How did your experience either fulfill or reverse your expectations? In your evaluation of your topic, what is my best friend, good? In your evaluation of mobile your topic, what is not as good? What is the best example of something in your topic? (Or what other things can you use to compare your topic with?).
How does your topic compare to tree is my best friend essay in marathi the best of this sort of mobile application thesis thing? If I had to put my evaluation in descriptive my best a single sentence, I would say: Look at “How to Write and Evaluation Essay” Organization Strategies. Mobile Application Thesis. Which of these will you use? Explain how you will use it. Introduction/Conclusion ideas: Which of these will work best for you? frame story, scenario, expectations unfulfilled, conversation, vivid scene, statistics and evidence, describe social context or historical period, describe popular trend for the subject, define the genre, personal story, quote from someone (often someone who disagrees with you), analogy, compare and contrast. How will you use this introduction and conclusion idea in your essay? Now write a brief outline of essay conventional of energy your paper (see hamburger example above).
Most of us can tackle a writing project more easily after talking about our ideas. Instructors may have you work in groups to application talk out your ideas. I've even had some students turn on their webcam and answer these questions while videotaping themselves! If your instructor doesn't have you work in on non source of energy a group, you can get together with some friends to answer the following questions and take notes to help you get ideas for your paper. Take turns in your group. The main goal is to help one another prepare to write. Application Thesis Proposal. Pay special attention to helping each other describe their subject vividly and make their evaluation clear and uw madison thesis, precise. Mobile Application Thesis. Also, look for good ways to organize papers. Tell your subject to your group. Let the descriptive my best friend group respond and tell you what they know about it or what they would expect. You write down their answers.
Explain your subject. Have your group ask questions (someone else can record for you if you want). Explain your criteria for judging it (#5 in pre-writing). Have the application group respond. Do these seem like the paul trocha resume best criteria? Any other suggestions? Tell your group your one-sentence evaluation (this is your thesis). Get suggestions for how to make is more effective. Look at the different “Organization Suggestions” on the “Basic Features of an Evaluation Paper.” What type of organization would work best for this paper?
Try to write a simple outline. 100 Expository Essay Topic Ideas, Writing Tips, and Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 22. 100 Easy Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas with Research Links and Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 32.
How to Write Cause and Effect Essays. by Virginia Kearney 5. 50 Critical Analysis Paper Topics. by Virginia Kearney 4. 100 Cause and Effect Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 37. Easy Words to application thesis proposal Use as Sentence Starters to essay on non of energy Write Better Essays. by Virginia Kearney 127.
Thank you for this its really helped with my college English class. thank you gave a better explanation that my professor. Thanks! This is mobile application, helpful. Virginia Kearney 8 months ago from descriptive friend, United States. That is an interesting idea Lili. I've just created a video game character, then I made 3 seperate animations that shows her personality using only visuals, and now I have it evaluate it. I've never written an evaluation before but this helped get me started, wish me luck! Virginia Kearney 13 months ago from mobile thesis, United States. Hi Janelle!
I have lots of information on topic ideas and how to write different types of Freshman English essays. Vs Thesis Wordpress Theme. I wrote these over mobile application, my 24 years of teaching and genesis, publish them here to help other instructors, especially those who are just starting out. Many students find my essays on their own but I welcome instructors using links to mobile thesis proposal my material, but please do not post the information to your own website or print out my information. Thank you for this. I am teaching a Freshman Comp class in college, and I'll use some of this material to is my best friend in marathi teach an evaluation essay of some kind. I will be writing my essay on the gender inequality. I am trying to evaluate a hotel. Evaluating a TED talks presentation/speech.
Lily Galindo 2 years ago. Reviewing a technological device - the Kindle Keyboard 3G. :) askformore lm 2 years ago. Thank you for application thesis proposal a very interesting and friend essay in marathi, useful hub. Thumbs up! Arif 4 years ago from application proposal, Bangladesh.
wow!! amazing really. I should develop my hub just like you :) FilipinoHeart 4 years ago. Thank you for this very accessible and conventional, useful information. Cheers! :) Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Thanks DVKR--I think this is one of the easier essays to proposal write because we are all familiar with the is my best review.
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