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APA Format Examples, Tips, and Guidelines. APA format is the official style used by the American Psychological Association and is commonly used in psychology, education, and other social sciences. Check out this gallery of examples, tips, and i need with, guidelines for writing papers in APA format. Your title page should include a running head, page number, article title, author name, and author affiliation. The sixth edition of the APA Publication Manual contained a few changes to the format of an APA style title page. Your title page should contain a running head that is flush left at the top of the page and a page number that is flush right at the top of the page. The title should be at the top half of the page and should be centered between margins. Use both upper-case and lower-case letters. This page should include the title of your paper, your name, and your school affiliation. The APA suggests that your title is no more than 12 words in length. Avoid using titles or degree info (such as Dr. or Ph.D.) before and after your name.
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Your references should begin on a new page with the i need help title References centered at the very top. Do not underline, italicize or place quotation marks around the thesis on quantum physics References title. Some More Basic Reference Page Rules. I Need With. Your references should be alphabetized by the last names of the in badminton first author of each source. All references should be double-spaced. Each reference should use a hanging indentation: the first line of the reference should be flush left, but each additional line of the reference needs to be indented. In article titles, only the first letter should be capitalized.
If a colon appears in the title, the first letter after the colon should also be capitalized. The title should not be placed in with algebra, quotations, underlined or italicized. Resume. All major words in the title of a journal should be capitalized; i.e. The Journal of Personality and i need algebra, Social Psychology. Longer works such as books and journals should appear in italics. In the case where the same author is tree friend essay cited multiple times for different works, start by listing these references in chronological order with the oldest reference appearing first and working your way up to help the most recent one. Learn more about APA references: Tables are a great way to display a great deal of information in a concise, clear and easy to tree is my best in marathi read format. In APA format papers, tables are generally used to help algebra describe the results of statistical analysis and other pertinent quantitative data. However, it is important to cover medical journal note that tables are not simply used to replicate data that has already been presented in the text of the paper and not all data should be presented in a table. I Need Help. If you have little numeric information to essay present, it should be described in the text of your paper.
The official APA publication manual recommends designing your table with the help algebra reader in mind. Strive to communicate data in a way that is sythesis clear and easy to help algebra understand. Basic Rules for Tables in APA Format. All tables should be numbered (e.g. Table 1, Table 2, Table 3). Each table should have an individual title, italicized and presented with each word capitalized (except and , in , of , with , etc.). Digital. For example, Correlations Between Age and Test Scores. Try to ensure that your title is neither too general nor too specific.
Each table should begin on a separate page. Horizontal lines can be used to separate information and make it clearer. I Need Algebra. Do not use vertical lines in an APA format table. According to gatsby the new sixth edition of the APA manual, a table can be either single-spaced or double-spaced. I Need. The key is to keep the table readable and the spacing consistent. All tables should be referenced in the text of the paper. Tables should be last, after your reference list and resume, appendixes.
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Instead, mention key highlights and tell the reader what to look for in your table. Table headings should be located flush right. Each column should be identified using a descriptive heading. The first letter of help with algebra, each heading should be capitalized. Abbreviations for standard terms (e.g. M, SD, etc.) can be used without explanation. Uncommon definitions should be explained in a note below the table. Additional Notes to an APA Format Table.
If additional explanation is needed, a note can be added below the table. There are three kinds of notes: General notes, specific notes, and probability notes. General notes refer to some aspect of the entire table; specific notes refer to a particular column or row; probability notes specify the probability level. Is the table needed to paul trocha resume present data or could the data simply be presented in the text? Does the title of your table clearly but briefly explain what it is about? Is the spacing consistent throughout the table? Does the i need help with algebra body of the paper refer to the table? Is each column of the table clearly labeled? If your paper contains more than one table, are they similar in paul trocha, format and presentation?
Are any special or uncommon abbreviations explained in notes? American Psychological Association. Help With Algebra. (2010). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. Author: Washington, DC. Thesis On Quantum. Journal articles should appear in alphabetical order in your APA format reference list. Consult the image below for examples of journal articles in APA format. Capitalize the first word in the title, subtitle, and proper nouns.
Italicize the name of the publication and the volume number. I Need Algebra. The basic format of a journal article reference involves listing authors by their last names followed by their initials. Term In Badminton. Next, the publication year is enclosed in parentheses and followed by help algebra a period. Great Gatsby. The title of the article should then follow, with only the i need with algebra first word and any proper nouns capitalized. The title of the journal should then follow along with the volume number, both of which should be italicized, and the page numbers of the article should also be included. Finally, a DOI number should be included if one is term available. Referencing electronic sources in APA format requires special style concerns. Electronic References Are Similar to Other References. The basic format of an electronic reference is very similar to i need help that of any other reference.
However, you do need to include the date the best friend in marathi reference was retrieved from the Internet as well as the online location of the i need document. As you perform research and accumulate sources, always be sure to note the date you found a particular source as well as its exact location on the Web. Use a Digital Object Identifier When Possible. Because online URLs can change, the APA recommends utilizing a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) in your references whenever possible. A DOI is cover medical article submission a unique alphanumeric string that begins with a 10 as well as a prefix (a four digit number assigned to algebra organizations) and a suffix (a number assigned by the publisher).
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An international journal on sexual and reproductive health and rights. Trends in maternal mortality in resident vs. migrant women in Shanghai, China, 2000–2009: a register-based analysis. Although Shanghai has good maternal health indicators, it also has a large in-migrating population, which has made control of maternal mortality a major challenge. This study analyzed maternal mortality and causes of death in pregnant women in with Shanghai in the ten years from 2000 to 2009, comparing resident and on quantum, migrant women. I Need Algebra. All live births were registered and every maternal death audited. The number of on quantum, live births rose from 84,898 in 2000 to 187,335 in 2009. The number of migrants increased 4.6 times, while the proportion of live births to migrant women increased from 27% to algebra 55%. There were 262 maternal deaths, 55 in Shanghai residents and 207 in digital migrant women (78.9% of the total). Most deaths in i need algebra migrant women were due to illegal delivery. Three policy changes focusing on maternal health greatly reduced deaths: low-cost delivery services were established for migrant women in maternity hospitals, five obstetric emergency care and referral centres were created in cover medical journal article submission general hospitals, and training for health professionals and health education for women were instituted.
Maternal mortality in Shanghai decreased steadily from 2000 to i need with algebra 2009, reaching 10 per 100,000 live births in 2009. Among Shanghai permanent residents the letter medical article submission, ratio was below ten in most of those years, while among migrant women it declined sharply from 58 to algebra 12 per 100,000 live births. Bien que Shanghai possede de bons indicateurs de sante maternelle, la ville abrite aussi une vaste population immigrante, et la lutte contre la mortalite maternelle y represente donc un enjeu majeur. Cette etude a analyse la mortalite maternelle et les causes de deces chez les femmes enceintes a Shanghai pendant 10 ans, de 2000 a 2009, en comparant les residentes et les migrantes. Is My Best Essay In Marathi. Toutes les naissances vivantes ont ete enregistrees et chaque deces maternel a ete examine. Le nombre de naissances vivantes est passe de 84 898 en 2000 a 187 335 en 2009. I Need Help With. Le nombre de migrants a augmente de 4,6 fois, alors que la proportion de naissances vivantes chez les migrantes passait de 27% a 55%. On a enregistre 262 deces maternels, 55 residentes de Shanghai et 207 migrantes (78,9% du total). La plupart des deces de migrantes etaient dus a des accouchements clandestins. Trois changements politiques centres sur ont sensiblement reduit la mortalite : l'etablissement de services obstetricaux a faible cout pour les migrantes dans les maternites, la creation de cinq centres de soins obstetricaux d'urgence et de reference dans les hopitaux generaux, et l'institution d'une formation des professionnels de sante et de l'education sanitaire des femmes. La mortalite maternelle a Shanghai a diminue regulierement depuis 2000, atteignant un taux de 10 pour 100 000 naissances vivantes en 2009.
Parmi les residentes permanentes de Shanghai, le taux etait inferieur a dix pendant la plupart de ces annees, alors que chez les migrantes, il a recule rapidement de 58 a 12 pour 100 000 naissances vivantes. Aunque en Shanghai existen buenos indicadores de salud materna, tambien hay un gran numero de inmigrantes, por lo cual es muy dificil controlar la mortalidad materna. En este estudio se analizo la mortalidad materna y las causas de muerte de mujeres embarazadas en Shanghai durante un plazo de diez anos, del 2000 al 2009, y se compararon las mujeres residentes con migrantes. Todos los nacimientos vivos fueron registrados y cada muerte materna auditada. Term Paper In Badminton. El numero de nacimientos vivos aumento de 84,898 en 2000 a 187,335 en 2009. El numero de migrantes aumento 4.6 veces, mientras que la proporcion de nacimientos vivos a mujeres migrantes aumento del 27% al 55%. Hubo 262 muertes maternas, 55 entre residentes de Shanghai y 207 entre mujeres migrantes (78.9% del total). La mayoria de las muertes entre mujeres migrantes fueron causadas por partos ilegales. I Need With. Tres cambios a las politicas centrados en disminuyeron en gran medida las tasas de muertes: se establecieron servicios de bajo costo para mujeres migrantes en maternidades, se crearon cinco centros de cuidados obstetricos de emergencia y referencia en hospitales generales, y se instituyeron programas de capacitacion para profesionales de la salud y de educacion sobre la salud para las mujeres. Las tasas de mortalidad materna en Shanghai disminuyeron a un ritmo constante entre 2000 y 2009, alcanzando 10 por cada 100,000 nacimientos vivos en 2009. Entre las residentes permanentes de Shanghai la proporcion fue menos de diez en la mayoria de esos anos, mientras que entre las mujeres migrantes aumento bruscamente de 58 a 12 por cada 100,000 nacimientos vivos.
Maternal mortality remains a major challenge to health systems worldwide, even though a sharpened focus on reduction of maternal mortality became a defining part of Millennium Development Goal 5. 1 C Ronsmans , WJ Graham , on behalf of Lancet Maternal Survival Series steering group. Maternal mortality: who, when, where, and why . Lancet. 368: 2006 ; 1189 – 1200 . [Google Scholar] However, the passage, reduction in maternal mortality over the past decade has been modest overall, with a yearly rate of decline in the global maternal mortality ratio (MMR) since 1990 of 1.3%. 2 MC Hogan , KJ Foreman , M Naghavi . Maternal mortality for 181 countries, 1980–2008: a systematic analysis of progress towards Millennium Development Goal 5 . Lancet. 375(9726): 2010 ; 1609 – 1623 . doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60518-1 . [Google Scholar] To achieve the i need with, MDG goal of reducing its 1990 MMR by three-quarters by 2015, China is on track. Cover Medical Submission. Between 2000 and 2005, the Chinese vital registration system recorded 64,780,153 live births and 30,672 maternal deaths, resulting in an overall MMR of 47 deaths per i need help with algebra, 100 000 live births. 3 G Yanqiu , C Ronsmans , A Lin . Time trends and regional differences in letter journal submission maternal mortality in China from 2000 to 2005 . Bulletin of World Health Organization. 87: 2009 ; 913 – 920 . Doi: 10.2471/BLT.08.060426 . [Google Scholar] As a metropolitan city, Shanghai has a higher level of maternal health care than most other provinces and the lowest MMR in China.
4 J Tan , M Qin , L Zhu . Analysis of mortality of pregnant and lying-in women from 2000 to 2007 in Shanghai . Journal of help with algebra, Chinese Maternity and Children's Healthcare. 23(28): 2008 ; 3954 – 3957 . [in Chinese]. [Google Scholar] In 2000, the MMR of Shanghai permanent residents was below 10 per 100,000 live births, comparable to the level of many developed countries. 3,4 G Yanqiu , C Ronsmans , A Lin . Time trends and regional differences in thesis on quantum maternal mortality in China from 2000 to 2005 . Bulletin of World Health Organization. 87: 2009 ; 913 – 920 . Doi: 10.2471/BLT.08.060426 . J Tan , M Qin , L Zhu . Analysis of mortality of i need help algebra, pregnant and lying-in women from sythesis 2000 to 2007 in Shanghai . Journal of Chinese Maternity and Children's Healthcare. 23(28): 2008 ; 3954 – 3957 . With Algebra. [in Chinese]. Since the 1990s, however, China has experienced major internal population migration, with millions of people moving from central and trocha, western China to the east coast and large cities. I Need. In Shanghai, the population of 16.4 million in sythesis 2000 had increased by 35% in 2010, according to census data. Migrants now account for about 36.4% of Shanghai's population, an increase from 19.4% in 2000. 5 Current Demographic Profiles of help algebra, Shanghai, 2001–2011. Shanghai Municipal Population and Family Planning Commission . At: http://rkjsw.sh.gov.cn/spfpen/data/ [Google Scholar] The number of live births among the medical journal article submission, migrant population exceeded that of Shanghai's permanent residents in 2005 and migrant women became the majority maternity population.
This has created a great challenge for Shanghai's health system, especially since insurance for maternity care covers fewer than 20% of i need help algebra, women in paul trocha resume China. Maternity insurance is provided to algebra women who are regularly employed and those who have urban household registration, so migrant women are not eligible. Most migrant women have no regular job or income, and their level of great, education is also lower than that of Shanghai permanent residents. They are and have been at higher risk for maternal death than Shanghai residents, and indeed, most maternal deaths since 1997 in Shanghai have been among the i need help algebra, migrant population. This situation was described up to on quantum physics 2005 in a previous study, 4 J Tan , M Qin , L Zhu . Analysis of i need with algebra, mortality of cover article, pregnant and lying-in women from 2000 to 2007 in Shanghai . Journal of Chinese Maternity and Children's Healthcare. I Need. 23(28): 2008 ; 3954 – 3957 . [in Chinese]. [Google Scholar] but it continues to be true today. This paper provides an update of the situation and describes the interventions that have been initiated by the government and the maternity services to reduce the number of deaths, as a result of which MMR in Shanghai has been falling in recent years. Migrant women usually could not afford antenatal check-ups, and they received no reimbursement for paul delivery in with hospital. Hence, they did not go into hospital until they were in labour; some delivered in illegal clinics and medical article, others at home. In order to encourage migrant women to i need help algebra have antenatal check-ups and hospital delivery in 2004 and 2007 the government released two policy documents entitled “Creation of low-cost maternity care in hospitals” and “Enhancement of the management of maternal health in migrant women”. 6,7 Shanghai Bureau of Health.
Creation of low-cost maternity care in paper in badminton hospitals . At: http://wsj.sh.gov.cn/website/b/31848.shtml. [in Chinese]. Shanghai Bureau of Health. Enhancement of the management of maternal health in migrant women . At: http://wsj.sh.gov.cn/website/b/34103.shtml. [in Chinese]. These established low-cost delivery care for the migrant population in existing maternity hospitals, so that they could have timely antenatal care and with algebra, hospital delivery for safe childbirth. Shanghai has 17 counties. The city centre consists of eight counties; most migrants live in the surrounding nine other counties. Hospitals that provide low-cost care are mostly located in the areas where the migrant population is concentrated. Migrant women can receive maternity services at a much lower cost, 150 yuan RMB for antenatal check-ups and 800 yuan RMB for spontaneous delivery, compared to 2000–3000 yuan RMB for antenatal check-ups and 3000–4000 yuan RMB for spontaneous delivery for residents. In addition, in order to improve the level of health knowledge and thesis on quantum physics, awareness of migrant women, the Shanghai government established a maternal and child health institute in every county. Every year since the with algebra, low-cost delivery care was established, community-based maternal and child health workers carry out lecture tours that highlight the availability of low-cost delivery in designated maternity hospitals and the importance of early pregnancy registration, and provide information and is my best, education on pregnancy and childbirth.
Emergency obstetric care is also important for reducing maternal deaths. Because skilled obstetric care has been developed so fast in Shanghai, the direct causes of i need help with algebra, maternal death have declined and indirect causes increased proportionally. Tree Best Essay. In 2007, the Shanghai government opened five emergency care and referral centres in tertiary general hospitals to provide timely, professional emergency obstetric care. The referral network covers all maternity hospitals in Shanghai, including those for migrant women, and previous difficulties in with referral and consultation, especially for letter submission women from rural areas, have been resolved. The object of the help algebra, research reported here was to passage analysis essay great gatsby analyze the with, causes of on quantum physics, maternal deaths and the MMR in Shanghai from 2000 to 2009 and summarize the experiences and with algebra, problems of maternity care management. Every pregnant woman is on quantum, supposed to register at a community health centre when she becomes pregnant. If she does not, community maternal and i need help with, child health workers will remind or persuade her to do so. After she delivers, obstetric information from the passage analysis great, hospital is algebra, collected by maternal health institutions. All cases of maternal deaths must be audited by the Maternal Death Review Committee, organized by the Shanghai Women's Health Institute. The Committee consists of term in badminton, experts in maternal and perinatal health from the primary, regional and tertiary levels of maternity care.
This study was carried out in Shanghai from 2000 to 2009. The data on live births came from Shanghai Maternal and Child Health Report Forms. All relevant documents, including medical charts, expert audit documents, and i need with algebra, Shanghai Maternal and Child Health Report Forms, were assembled for reviewing. Sythesis. Final diagnosis of with, each maternal death was made by consensus of the committee members. At the end of letter journal article submission, every year, every case of i need help with, maternal death was checked with the Public Security Bureau and Centre for Disease Control and Prevention to ensure that every case had been audited. If any maternal deaths were missed, an audit of the case would be held. The definition of maternal death used was the International Classification of Diseases 1992 definition: the tree is my friend essay, death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of pregnancy termination, irrespective of pregnancy duration or method of termination, excluding deaths from intentional and unintentional injuries.
8 International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. 10th Revision. Geneva: World Health Organization, Geneva. [Google Scholar] We analyzed live births and overall MMR in migrant women and i need help algebra, permanent residents in Shanghai, and then looked at physics, the causes of maternal deaths and the results of the maternal death audits. The number of live births in Shanghai rose from 84,898 in 2000 to 187,335 in 2009, an increase of 120%. The number of births rose rapidly from 2004 and had doubled by 2007 compared to 2000, mainly because of the increased number of live births in the migrant population, which rose 4.6 times during the ten years (accounting for 25.5% of the total in i need 2000 and 54.8% of the total in 2009). There were 262 maternal deaths in the ten years with an average MMR of 20.5 per 100,000 live births. The number of deaths in migrant women was 207 and in Shanghai residents it was 55. Trocha Resume. The MMR was 8 per with, 100,000 live births in Shanghai residents and 35 per 100,000 live births in migrant women. In 2005, only one Shanghai resident died and the migrant population accounted for 96.9% of the total deaths. MMR declined from 21 per 100,000 live births in 2000 to 10 per resume, 100,000 live births in 2009.
Except in with 2003 and 2004, the MMR of Shanghai residents was below 10 per 100,000 live births. Among migrant women, MMR declined dramatically from 58 per 100,000 live births in 2000 to 12 per 100,000 live births in 2009, a decrease of 79.8% (Table 1). Trends in maternal mortality in resident vs. migrant women in Shanghai, China, 2000–2009: a register-based analysis. Table 2 shows the five main causes of maternal deaths in Shanghai residents and trocha, migrants. Algebra. Obstetric haemorrhage caused the largest number of deaths in both populations. The other four main causes of maternal death were heart disease, liver diseases, ectopic pregnancy, amniotic fluid embolism and pregnancy-induced hypertension, though in a different order among resident vs. migrant women. Trends in maternal mortality in resident vs. migrant women in Shanghai, China, 2000–2009: a register-based analysis. In the passage analysis essay, years 2000–2004 compared to 2005–2009, the main causes of maternal death changed in both sub-populations. In Shanghai residents, the proportion of deaths from ectopic pregnancy declined, while deaths from pregnancy-induced hypertension and liver diseases rose. In migrants, the i need help, proportion of passage great, deaths from with obstetric haemorrhage, ectopic pregnancy and pregnancy-induced hypertension declined dramatically. Overall, the MMR related to obstetric haemorrhage declined from 22 per 100,000 live births to 5.5 per 100,000 live births (a decline of 74.9%).
Especially in the migrant population, MMR related to digital sythesis obstetric haemorrhage declined from 36 per 100,000 live births in 2000 to 1 per with algebra, 100,000 live births in 2009, a decline of 97.3% (Figure 1). Ectopic pregnancy declined from 4 per 100,000 to 0.7 per 100,000 (a decline of thesis on quantum physics, 84.4%), and pregnancy-induced hypertension from 7 per i need help with algebra, 100,000 live births to letter journal submission 3 per 100,000 live births (declined by half) (Figures 2 and 3). Trends in maternal mortality in resident vs. Help Algebra. migrant women in Shanghai, China, 2000–2009: a register-based analysis. Trends in maternal mortality in resident vs. migrant women in Shanghai, China, 2000–2009: a register-based analysis. Trends in maternal mortality in resident vs. migrant women in Shanghai, China, 2000–2009: a register-based analysis. Of the total 262 maternal deaths from essay in marathi 2000 to 2009, 141 were due to direct obstetric causes and 121 to indirect obstetric causes. Help With Algebra. The proportion of indirect causes of death increased each year, from 38.9% in 2000 to 72.2% in 2009 (Figure 4). Trends in maternal mortality in cover letter article resident vs. I Need Help Algebra. migrant women in Shanghai, China, 2000–2009: a register-based analysis. In sum, the MMR in Shanghai decreased steadily over the ten years of the study, and digital, reached 10 per 100,000 live births in 2009, a developed country level.
9,10 LP Zhu , M Qin , WL Jia . I Need Algebra. Analysis of MMR of migrating population in Shanghai in recent 10 years . Journal of Chinese Maternity and Children's Healthcare. 22(20): 2007 ; 2751 – 2752 . [in Chinese]. WHO UNICEF UNFPA World Bank. Maternal mortality in 2005 . 2007 ; World Health Organization : Geneva . Among Shanghai permanent residents MMR was below 10 in most of those years, while among migrant women it declined from 58 in 2000 to 12 per 100,000 live births in 2009. In the least developed regions of the world, trends in maternal mortality suggest that pregnancy is not getting safer for poor women. To change this, the focus must be on interventions that will reach poor women. Letter Medical Article Submission. 11 N Prata , M Graff , A Graves . Avoidable maternal deaths: three ways to i need help help now . Global Public Health. 4(6): 2009 ; 575 – 587 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] In Shanghai, most migrant women are from rural areas of China, have a lower socioeconomic status and are not well educated. Unlike Shanghai permanent residents, they do not have maternity insurance. We believe the insurance system in China today cannot cover such a large population.
Without any help, however, some of the poorest women would not be able to afford the cost of thesis, antenatal care and delivery in a hospital, which was the main reason why the MMR among migrant women was much higher than that of permanent residents. I Need Help With. 12 L Zhu , M Qin , L Du . Comparison of maternal mortality between migrating population and cover letter medical article submission, permanent residents in Shanghai, China, 1996–2005 . BJOG. Help. 116: 2009 ; 401 – 407 . [Google Scholar] The establishment of low-cost delivery in maternity hospitals for the migrant population contributed’greatly to paper in badminton reducing maternal deaths among them. 13 L Zhu , M Qin , W Jia . Whole coverage of maternal health management and i need algebra, effect in Shanghai . Journal of Chinese Maternity and Children's Healthcare. 23(10): 2008 ; 1321 – 1323 . [in Chinese]. [Google Scholar] However, this is not a long-term solution.
We believe the government should consider covering maternal health insurance for migrant women step by digital sythesis step, which would be an essential resolution of the problem. Post-partum haemorrhage accounts for nearly one-quarter of maternal deaths worldwide. 14 World Health Organization. WHO recommendations for the prevention of post-partum haemorrhage . 2006 ; WHO : Geneva . [Google Scholar] In Shanghai, it was the most common cause of maternal deaths among migrant women. I Need Help. 4,15 J Tan , M Qin , L Zhu . Analysis of mortality of journal, pregnant and lying-in women from i need with 2000 to 2007 in Shanghai . Journal of Chinese Maternity and Children's Healthcare. 23(28): 2008 ; 3954 – 3957 . [in Chinese]. L Du , M Qin , L Zhu . Analysis of great, maternal deaths due to post-partum haemorrhage (PPH) from 1997 to i need with 2006 in Shanghai . Journal of Chinese Maternity and Children's Healthcare. On Quantum Physics. 23(34): 2008 ; 4879 – 4882 . [in Chinese].
Most of these deaths were due to illegal delivery. After low-cost delivery services for migrant women in maternity hospitals were established, the rate of delivery of migrant women in hospital increased, 16 LP Zhu , J Tan , WL Jia . The effectiveness of low-cost pregnancy care for women from migrant populations at delivery hospitals in i need algebra Shanghai . Chinese Health Resources. 10(2): 2007 ; 89 – 91 . [in Chinese]. [Google Scholar] and mortality from obstetric haemorrhage decreased by 97.3% from 2000 to cover letter medical journal article 2009. This alone made the MMR of migrant women decline by 78.9%. The construction of emergency care and referral centres for help algebra pregnant women was another important measure for reducing maternal deaths due to direct obstetric causes among both resident and migrant women. Emergency obstetric care requires not only the involvement of obstetric departments, but also the collaboration of other departments. Analysis Essay Great. 17 LP Zhu , LP He , M Qin . Construction and effectiveness of emergency aid network in Shanghai . Journal of Chinese Maternity and Children's Healthcare. 25(2): 2010 ; 150 – 152 . I Need Help Algebra. [in Chinese]. [Google Scholar] The decrease in the mortality rate from heart disease and liver disease also showed the effectiveness of these centres.
Finally, strengthening professional training and analysis essay, health education to improve the awareness and capability of obstetricians and physicians, and increasing the awareness and ability of self-help health care among pregnant women were another guarantee of help algebra, safer motherhood. Passage Gatsby. With ectopic pregnancy, for example, Shanghai Women's Health Institute conducted various trainings and simulated performances to improve the i need help, alertness and skills of obstetricians and related physicians to ensure every maternity hospital attaches importance to acute abdominal pain in women and has the ability to deal with it. Tree Essay. On the other hand, maternal and i need, child health centres in every county have provided maternal health education to the target population to improve their knowledge and prevent delays in seeking treatment. 18 M Qin , LP Zhu , L Zhang . Analysis of deaths due to ectopic pregnancy from 1979 to paper 2008 in Shanghai . Journal of Chinese Maternity and help with, Children's Healthcare. 25(17): 2010 ; 2330 – 2333 . [in Chinese]. On Quantum. [Google Scholar] The fall in mortality from ectopic pregnancy in help with algebra 2005–2009 from 2.4 to only 0.5 per 100,000 live births shows the importance and necessity of professional training for health workers and health education for analysis great gatsby pregnant women. Preventing maternal deaths in a resource-poor population is possible, but requires the right kind of information on which to base programmes. 19 G Lewis . Beyond the numbers: reviewing maternal deaths and complications to make pregnancy safer . British Medical Bulletin. 67: 2003 ; 27 – 37 . [Google Scholar] The analysis of maternal mortality ratios and causes of death can help to find underlying factors and provide evidence for effective interventions. Comprehensive measures, including policies focusing on the target population, health education and obstetric emergency care, are needed to achieve effectiveness in help with algebra reducing MMR.
The World Health Organization defined four priorities for making motherhood and childhood safe: reduce unsafe abortions, improve maternal health care, enhance the capacity of service utilization and digital sythesis, timely treatment of help, obstetric emergencies. 20 World Health Organization. Digital Sythesis. Reduction of maternal mortality. A Joint WHO/UNFPA/UNICEF/World Bank statement . 1999 ; WHO : Geneva . [Google Scholar] Health education for pregnant women to understand why and when to seek treatment is i need with, also important, and cover medical journal article, community-based lecture tours by i need maternal and digital sythesis, children's health centres may also be an effect intervention. These comprehensive interventions to help with reduce maternal deaths in tree is my best essay in marathi Shanghai have shown great success in one decade. Help. Now, we must share these experiences with the trocha, rest of China, especially in the central and western areas. Trends in maternal mortality in resident vs. migrant women in Shanghai, China, 2000–2009: a register-based analysis.
Pregnant woman, Dajing Lu market, Shanghai, China, 2007. Pregnant woman, Dajing Lu market, Shanghai, China, 2007. Registered in England Wales No. 3099067. 5 Howick Place | London | SW1P 1WG.
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As shall be noted later, social work education started in help Europe and North America in the last quarter of the 19th century. Its history goes back to the era of the Charity Organisation Societies when students learned social work by apprenticeship, that is, learning by doing. As Royse, Dhooper and Rompf (2007) observe, students obtained firsthand knowledge of poverty and adverse conditions through “applied philanthropy”. Term Paper In Badminton? They also note that the apprenticeship model emphasised learning by doing and “deriving knowledge from that activity”. By the end of the i need help with algebra 19th century, social work gradually evolved from the paul trocha resume apprenticeship method with the i need launching of the first social work training in 1898. This was a summer school established at the New York City Charity Organisation Society.
Six years later, in 1904, the cover medical journal article Society established the New York School of Philanthropy, which offered eight months training in social work. Further to these developments, George, (1982) cited in help with algebra Royse, et al (2007) contents that Mary Richmond, an early social work practitioner, teacher and theoretician, advocated for complementing field learning with academic education. Royse, et al (2007) also quote Austin (1986) who observes that early in social work education, students spent about half of their academic time in field settings. From the above, it is quite evident that fieldwork is the forerunner of social work education and that theory and practice are equally important. Leading social work scholars, among them, Kaseke (1986), Mupedziswa, (1997) and Osie-Hwedie (1996) also unequivocally assert the importance of both field instruction (fieldwork) and classroom instruction. Analysis Essay? On the same note, Hall (1995:38) asserts that, “a generally accepted view today is with algebra, that field instruction is of equal importance to academic instruction”. It is digital, therefore self-evident, even from the history of social work in with Europe and North America where it originated, that social work education and training has always embraced the thesis on quantum physics view that fieldwork and classroom instruction are essential elements of social work education.
However, the reality at social work training institutions as Kaseke (1990) observes, is that fieldwork is marginalised when compared to i need with, its academic counterpart. Kaseke asserts that, “there is very little written on this subject matter, thus leaving social work educators, students and term, field supervisors without any meaningful and comprehensive guide to i need help, field instruction”. Mupedziswa (1997) also corroborates this view, contenting that “social work institutions need to recast their fieldwork in order to give it equal importance to academic instruction”. This study assessed the fieldwork programme at three social work training institutions in Eastern and Southern Africa, namely the Institute of Social Work (ISW) in Tanzania, National University of Lesotho (NUL) and School of Social Work, University of Zimbabwe. Thesis? The International Association of Schools of Social Work Directory of 2002, an umbrella body of social work training institutions lists these training institutions as members. NUL and the School of Social Work, University of Zimbabwe offer undergraduate and postgraduate degrees in social work, while at the time of the i need help with algebra study the ISW offered a three year undergraduate Advanced Diploma in Social Work as its main programme. The study focused on is my friend in marathi the Advanced Diploma (ISW) and Bachelor of i need with, Social Work students. 2 The role of fieldwork in social work education and training.
It is quite evident from the foregoing, that fieldwork has always been part of social work training and is an integral component of social work education. As Hepworth and Rooney and Larsen (2002) observe, fieldwork engages the student in supervised social work practice and provides opportunities to marry theory and practice. A widely used definition of fieldwork is one by Hamilton and Else (1983) who view it as, “a consciously planned set of experiences occurring in best essay in marathi a practice setting designed to i need help algebra, move students from is my best essay in marathi, their initial level of understanding, skills and attitudes to levels associated with autonomous social work practice.” As the social work curriculum is based on both theory and practice, the provision of i need with, sound theory is critical as is fieldwork experience. It is critically important for thesis on quantum physics, social work students to acquire, in a classroom environment, practice principles, values and i need with algebra, ethics and the scientific basis for practice. Equally important is the need to trocha resume, apply the theoretical content covered in the classroom, to real life situations as part of a student’s preparation to become a professional social worker. It takes more than academic fitness, but also evidence-based knowledge, field- tested skills and a wealth of hands-on-experience to become a fully backed social worker.
As Shardlow and Doel (1996:6) observe, “..these two contexts for learning about i need with algebra, social work practice, class and fieldwork need to be integrated, complementary and mutually consistent”. They further point out that the challenge for the student and agency supervisor, is to paper, make this a reality”. Kaseke (1986:55) also observes that fieldwork is an instrument of socialisation since it prepares the student for a future role as a social work practitioner. He further asserts that, “a meaningful fieldwork placement is one that enhances the help with students understanding of the social work profession and digital sythesis, the nature of the problems the profession addresses itself to”. Learning therefore takes place at various levels, that is, intellectually, emotionally and practically. Furthermore, fieldwork is an opportunity for aligning theoretical knowledge and learning, with the needs of society and the market place. It also affords students the opportunity to take responsibility for addressing people’s problems. Therefore, if handled effectively, fieldwork becomes an with, important tool in bringing about a social work curriculum that is appropriate and responsive to topical social development issues. Fieldwork also develops in students, skills that will enable them to respond appropriately to the needs of clients.
Furthermore, Safari (1986) observes that, “In the field, the student comes into contact with needy people, their problems, their reactions to the problems and their attitude towards social workers and thus the student discovers his or her ability to help”. It is through observation and doing the job and feeling responsible for in badminton, the job of helping people to cope with their problems, that social work students acquire skills. With Algebra? Likewise, fieldwork is designed to give the student exposure and experience on the functioning of social welfare agencies and social welfare provisioning. The general purpose of fieldwork is therefore, to acquaint students with actual social work situations, in preparation for professional social work practice. It is an analysis essay great gatsby, instrument that is used to initiate students into the profession through among others, inculcation and assimilation of social work ethics, principles and values. It is help with algebra, widely accepted that it is a basic requirement of is my friend essay in marathi, all professions to have a knowledge base, principles, values and ethics that guide and inform practice. Similarly, it is through opportunities to practice that students assimilate these principles, values and ethics of the profession. Statement of the problem.
While ideally, the academic and practical components of social work education are of equal importance, there are indications that fieldwork is marginalised. Furthermore, there is evidence showing that agency supervisors who are responsible for the practical training of social work students are not sufficiently resourced to undertake their supervisory role and yet they are expected to provide opportunities for students to develop their professional knowledge and skills. Furthermore, as pointed out elsewhere, Kaseke (1990) observes that there is not much documented literature on this subject and as a result stakeholders do not have an adequate grasp of the issues involved, which inevitably compromises the quality of students learning on fieldwork. Justification of the i need study. Considering that there is letter medical journal article, not much literature on fieldwork in social work education and training, this study is intended to make a contribution towards filling this gap. I Need With? The study builds on existing knowledge on fieldwork, including but not limited to the fieldwork curriculum, the management of fieldwork and the needs and challenges faced by students, agency supervisors and tree is my best essay, training institutions.
The aim of this study was to i need help with algebra, examine the nature, form and challenges experienced in the management of fieldwork at social work training institutions in Eastern and Southern Africa. The specific objectives of the study were: · to establish the nature, form and content of fieldwork practice at selected social work training institutions in Eastern and Southern Africa. · to ascertain whether fieldwork is treated as being equally important to its theory counterpart (classroom instruction) at the selected training institutions. · to assess the needs and challenges faced by training institutions, agency supervisors and students on fieldwork. This section covers the research design for digital, the study, target population, sample and sampling techniques, data gathering and data analysis. This study is essentially descriptive in nature though it has both quantitative and qualitative elements. The study covered fieldwork coordinators, agency supervisors and algebra, students on block fieldwork placement from the Institute of Social Work (ISW) in Tanzania, the National University of Lesotho (NUL) and the School of tree essay in marathi, Social Work, University of help, Zimbabwe.
An agency supervisor is an analysis great gatsby, employee of the organisation providing the setting for social work students learning. He/she is i need algebra, responsible for the teaching and learning of a social work student on practical attachment. A sample of 10 students and their agency supervisors participated in the study from the Institute of gatsby, Social Work, where the i need help author was on sabbatical leave in passage great gatsby 2004. At the i need help National University of Lesotho, a total of 78 fourth year students and six agency supervisors were covered in the study in 2009 and at the School of Social Work, University of Zimbabwe, a total of 16 second and third year students and their supervisors also participated the study in 2007 and 2008. Therefore, a total of 104 students and 32 agency supervisors from the three institutions participated in the study. Students and agency supervisors. In the case of the ISW and School of Social Work students and their agency supervisors, these were covered in the course of students’ assessments. The students who participated in the study were those allocated by fieldwork coordinators at is my friend in marathi the respective institutions. There was therefore no attempt to stratify the study population as data were gathered from students that were allocated for assessment. As for NUL students it was not possible to have a similar arrangement as students assessment was carried out as a team of with, school supervisors. Cover? This being the i need algebra case, a 100% sample of thesis on quantum, fourth year students was covered after they had completed their fieldwork.
Purposive sampling was used for agency supervisors as it was quite convenient to help with algebra, select the supervisors of students who participated in best friend essay in marathi the study. In the case of help, NUL only passage analysis, six agency supervisors were selected for the study also on the basis of convenience and willingness to be interviewed. Purposive sampling was also used for fieldwork coordinators (a member of the fieldwork committee at Institute of Social Work and a Lecturer involved with students placements at NUL) at the respective institutions. Data gathering techniques. An interview guide covering selected themes on the nature and practice of fieldwork was used to obtain information from the target population comprising of social work students, agency supervisors and fieldwork coordinators. However, in the case of NUL, a questionnaire was used for students and this was completed after they returned from fieldwork. Assessment of students at the National University of Lesotho was done as a team of school supervisors and logistically it was not convenient to interview them for i need help algebra, the study at the time of their assessment. Relevant fieldwork documents at the selected institutions were also reviewed. Data was analysed on the basis of in badminton, selected themes, including the i need with nature and form of fieldwork, duration of fieldwork, agency and school supervision, and challenges experienced in passage analysis essay the management and practice of fieldwork among others.
Presentation and discussion of findings. The purpose of i need with, this study was basically to best friend in marathi, unravel the nature and form of fieldwork and challenges in the management of fieldwork at the Institute of Social Work in Tanzania, National University of Lesotho and the School of Social Work, University of Zimbabwe. The study is i need help algebra, premised on digital sythesis the view that while theory and fieldwork are of equal importance in social work education and training, the latter is marginalised and it is not accorded the importance that it deserves. The presentation and discussion of the study findings shall be done simultaneously in the sub-sections below. Forms of fieldwork. Social work training institutions generally use one of four forms of fieldwork, namely concurrent, block, a combination of help with algebra, both concurrent and block and in-service placements. The block placement arrangement is used at the three institutions. However, the tree best in marathi ISW uses both concurrent and block placements. The National University of Lesotho also uses block placements at the undergraduate level and concurrent fieldwork at algebra the postgraduate level (MSW).
A block fieldwork placement refers to a continuous full-time engagement of a social work student at a fieldwork agency for a period ranging from at least a month to paper in badminton, one year depending on the institution. The School of Social Work, University of Zimbabwe, uses the block placement system with fieldwork occurring in help the second and third year for a period of three months and three weeks. At the ISW, there is only one block placement which occurs in the third year for a period of three months. At the digital sythesis National University of Lesotho, the block fieldwork occurs in the second year for a month and in the third and i need, fourth year for two months respectively. Concurrent fieldwork at the ISW occurs at the second year level. As pointed out earlier, the School of Social Work uses block placements only, but first year students also go for field visits in thesis on quantum physics the second semester as part of their orientation to the profession. Concurrent fieldwork occurs simultaneously with classroom instruction.
The students’ time is divided between classroom learning and field based learning. Help? Typically, students spend two or three days in article submission a week at the field agency and they take classes for the remaining two or three days of the week. The beauty of the concurrent fieldwork arrangement lies in the simultaneous and immediate application of theory learnt in the classroom into practice. An added advantage of this form of fieldwork is that students can share and readily discuss their placements while at the training institution and this can contribute to effective integration of theory and practice. Help? However a major limitation of this arrangement is that students have to be attached at agencies within the proximity of the training institution. Therefore, on this basis, students are denied the opportunity to work in remote rural areas where social work intervention is probably most needed as most social work training institutions are urban based. Resume? Furthermore, this arrangement may not work well as the student has to be reporting to both his or her training institution and the agency supervisor. In support of this view, Hall (1990: 31) states that, “ the disadvantage is the possibility that the fieldwork experience becomes more fragmented and algebra, students are unable to do justice to either theory or practice because of the overlapping expectations of workplace and tree is my friend essay, school”. It is also difficult to come up with a structured programme for a student working on a part-time basis. There is also the i need help algebra risk of agency supervisors neglecting or forgetting about their students as they only meet them twice or thrice in a week. It appears the rationale for using concurrent placements initially at first or second year levels or both levels and then blocks at higher levels is to offer students an opportunity to gradually acquaint themselves with the profession.
This is so considering that in the first or second year of the paper in badminton course expectations are not very high. Help? Students are required to observe the supervisor in action and to digital sythesis, perform tasks befitting their level. Help Algebra? Placements at essay great gatsby this level are therefore of an with algebra, exploratory character with the student carrying out tasks that are not too complex. However, at higher levels the student is expected to be active at a practical level, carrying out tasks that have considerable scope for increasingly independent execution of duties and skills. While the block placement allows students to digital sythesis, immerse themselves in the work of an agency and is more conducive to the pursuit of intellectually and professionally stimulating tasks, it also has its weaknesses. Help? One problem is the postponement of cover letter medical, application of theory into i need with algebra, practice until a certain level of theoretical knowledge is attained.
Additionally, there is a clear separation of the timing and context in which theory and practice take place as students are away from the training institution for a period ranging from one month to a year. On the other hand, in-service placements are appropriate in situations where social work training is designed as part of tree in marathi, in-service training. I Need Help? Students go back to term in badminton, their places of employment, for fieldwork experience in the context of their existing jobs. Hall (1990) cites the example of the algebra Department of Social Services, at digital Kaduna Polytechnic in Nigeria which offers an in-service training course and uses in-service placements for with algebra, its fieldwork programme. However, such programmes are mounted on a one-off basis and are therefore not sustainable in the long term as it would be difficult to essay great, guarantee a regular supply of students from employers. It must however be appreciated that the choice of the most appropriate form or combination, is based on the demands of help, classroom instruction in terms of cover journal, course configuration and the amount of time required for each subject. Each institution is therefore unique in i need algebra terms of prevailing circumstances and conditions but it is important to settle for the most effective form of paul trocha, fieldwork that guarantees professional growth and development for the student. Nature of fieldwork.
In describing the nature of fieldwork at the institutions covered in i need help algebra the study it is cover letter medical journal, important to i need help, refer to the IASSW and IFSW (2004) Global Standards on Social Work Education and of special interest are standards relating to duration of fieldwork, expectations and requirements for agency supervision, the term fieldwork curriculum. These shall be examined in the sections below. It also needs to be noted from the outset that it was very evident from the collation of data gathered that, in many regards, fieldwork at the three institutions is generally the same. There are however significant differences in the structure of fieldwork in terms of form, level at which it takes place and the duration of fieldwork. As pointed out i need help algebra, earlier, the block fieldwork placement is common at the three institutions, though there are differences in duration and the levels at which it occurs.
The other notable difference, as indicated previously, is that the ISW and NUL (at Masters Level only) also utilise concurrent fieldwork. Duration of fieldwork. As stipulated by trocha, the IASSW and i need, IFSW the duration of resume, fieldwork should be sufficient and help algebra, challenging enough to prepare students for professional practice. Cumulatively, the total fieldwork time for block placements at undergraduate level (at the social work training institutions covered) is as follows: No. of block placements Total duration. Institute of Social Work (one block placement) 3 months.
National University of Lesotho (3 blocks at second, third. and fourth year) 5 months. School of Social Work (2 block placements at 6 months, 3 wks. Second and thesis on quantum, third year) (27 wks) It is clear from the table above, that if one considers block placements only, the total fieldwork time is longest at the School of Social Work, where it is 6 months and with, three weeks. It is shortest at the Institute of is my best in marathi, Social Work (as of 2004) where it is only three months.
This is probably because the Institute is not a degree awarding institution as it offers a three-year Advanced Diploma in Social Work whereas the other institutions offer four-year degree programmes. The majority of the agency supervisors and students from the i need help with Institute of Social Work were of the view that three months of fieldwork is rather short. Physics? Considering that the students only have one block placement, it is understandable that they preferred a longer placement which enables both students and supervisors to pursue the fieldwork objectives to the end. The majority of i need, School of Social Work students and tree best, their supervisors were also of the opinion that their fieldwork was short. This is also understandable considering that the fieldwork takes place at two levels, that is, second and third year, for i need, 8 and 15 weeks respectively. Though cumulatively, the fieldwork is longer at digital sythesis the School of Social Work, the time allocated per block placement was considered to be inadequate. While there are both advantages and disadvantages in having a single or multiple block placements at i need with algebra the undergraduate level, it is important to consider these in relation to the context in which training is in badminton, taking place and the learning needs of students. I Need Algebra? An obvious advantage of at least two block placements is that students get varied experiences, which prepares them to function in any social work setting when they qualify.
A single placement limits the student particularly in third world contexts where resources are scarce and poverty abounds. At NUL, students go for block placement at the beginning of second, third and paul resume, fourth year. Though the duration of fieldwork was deemed to help algebra, be generally inadequate by agency supervisors, 72% of the students expressed contentment with the two months fieldwork. Fewer students indicated that the fieldwork was too long. The main reason given for this position was that social work students do not have holidays, unlike students in other programmes. Fieldwork at NUL takes place during the passage great long vacation from help, end of May to July thus denying students their much needed break in between semesters. Some students actually wished it could be reduced to one month and they argued that it should be done during semester time, like the academic courses. The other problem raised was that students on fieldwork experience acute financial hardships as they do not get adequate financial support from government. One student summed up the problems pointing out that, “We endure so many hardships as a result of inadequate financial support when doing fieldwork. It is journal, actually a mystery that some of us last the two months. Two months is too long without financial support for our upkeep and transport”.
Some also indicated that they did not have much work to occupy them and they were therefore idle most of the i need time. However, agency supervisors were of the feeling that eight weeks was too short considering that students needed time to learn and to adjust to passage analysis great gatsby, the new situation. While it would be difficult to prescribe the form and duration of fieldwork as training institutions are unique in i need algebra their own right, what is emerging from paul trocha resume, this study is the need for block fieldwork to be long enough for students to help, develop and passage analysis great, consolidate their skills. The Council on Social Work Education (CSWE) (in the USA), quoted in i need help algebra Royce, Dhooper and Rompf (2007) requires that undergraduate students do fieldwork for a minimum of 400 contact hours. This translates to a minimum fieldwork period of three months. Therefore, if one is to use the CSWE standard to measure the thesis on quantum physics adequacy of the duration of fieldwork, then clearly, the three institutions covered in this study meet this requirement. The study found that the three institutions covered in the study did not have a comprehensive fieldwork curriculum. At best, the fieldwork curriculum at the institutions is fragmented. However, when compared to i need, its academic counterpart (classroom instruction) taught courses have a well-organised structure based on a clearly defined curriculum. This makes the learning and teaching manageable and focused.
Shardlow and Doel (1996:79-80) suggest the following advantages of thesis physics, having a fieldwork curriculum: the requirements of social work practice can shape the content of what is learned by students through a practice curriculum. students are empowered through the i need with existence of an explicit written practice curriculum; they can have an understanding of required learning at friend essay in marathi the start of the placement. practice teachers are empowered through the development of the curriculum as a common currency, so there is an opportunity and a reason to become connected with each other. It is possible to organise practice learning so that simple or core skills, basic knowledge or fundamental values are learned before the more complex elements are attempted. It is possible with a practice curriculum to know when learning has been achieved in given areas, and then to move on to other components of the curriculum or to find ways to compensate for deficiencies in the learning environment – if, for example, live practice with clients is not generating appropriate learning experiences, other methods of learning can be used. The curriculum allows for help, a range of different learning opportunities and learning methods to be used: this can be well- organised and planned before the start of the placement. The examination of paul trocha resume, practice competence can be structured and harmonized to fit with the pace of learning. An analysis of the fieldwork course materials at the institutions reveals that the algebra only documents in use are fieldwork placement forms, that is, background information forms, assessment forms, guidelines for writing fieldwork reports, contract forms in the case of the School of Social Work, and letters of introduction for students. Of concern was the lack of Fieldwork Manuals at two of the digital institutions. Manuals provide valuable reference material for students, agency supervisors and social work educators. Help With Algebra? Though the School of Social Work has a fieldwork manual, which probably needs updating as it is digital sythesis, a 1990 publication, agency supervisors indicated that they did not have this manual.
Commenting on the state of fieldwork at help with algebra one of the training institutions one fieldwork coordinator had this to say, “Agency supervisors sometimes phone us wanting to know the expectations for paul trocha resume, fieldwork. To be honest with you we are also at a loss as to what to tell them. We do not have much documented materials on fieldwork apart from students’ fieldwork reports and fieldwork placement forms. I believe this is also compounded by the fact that our students go to a diversity of agencies which makes it difficult to come up with a universally applicable fieldwork programme”. Criteria used in the choice of i need help with, fieldwork agencies.
Students covered in the study were placed in a wide range of agencies including but not limited to government ministries and departments, local authorities and Non Governmental Organisations (NGOs), indicating flexibility in the criteria used to select fieldwork agencies. Understandably, agencies of first choice for students were those that pay allowances and other incentives. As most students did not get allowances for trocha, fieldwork, the need to minimise costs on transport and other expenses prompted them to i need with algebra, choose agencies within close proximity to their places of residence and not necessarily those with the greatest potential for provision of learning. However on the part of training institutions, the main consideration was to minimise the costs involved in fieldwork assessment visits (follow-ups). Based on this reality, most placements were in urban settings. However, at cover letter medical the School of Social Work, students did their fieldwork only in Harare (where it is located). Furthermore, the fieldwork coordinator at one of the institutions pointed out that “there is an acute shortage of agencies willing to take students on placement which makes it difficult to secure placements for all the students if we are to follow a rigid selection criterion.
We have to be flexible if all students are to be placed”. However, on the same note, the Council on Social Work Education, quoted in Royse et al (2007:5) stipulates that fieldwork should occur in i need help settings that reinforce students, “identification with the purposes, values, and ethics of the profession, fosters the friend essay in marathi integration of with algebra, empirical and practice based knowledge and promotes the development of thesis, professional competency”. Quality of agency supervision. Though the use of qualified and experienced supervisors is quite critical in any professional training this study found the supervision of students by non-social workers to be a common practice. The study revealed that, 52.5% of agency supervisors of the School of Social Work students were not social workers. 50% of the ISW students indicated that their supervisors were not social workers. 63% of social work students at NUL indicated that they were supervised by i need with algebra, non social workers. These findings are perhaps not surprising considering that there is an acute shortage of suitable fieldwork agencies and in the case of the School of thesis, Social Work in Zimbabwe this was also compounded by the massive exodus of qualified social workers during the period 2002-2009 as a result of political and economic challenges facing the help algebra country then. Also problematic is term in badminton, that most of the agency supervisors did not have a programme showing how the teaching and learning was to happen.
It was indicated that training institutions did not provide them with any guidelines and as a result they just ended up improvising. An agency supervisor at one of the District Social Welfare Offices in Lesotho indicated that there was just an understanding with the student, that in a five-day week she would spend two days doing administrative work at help the office and three days in the community carrying out home assessment visits. Similarly, the analysis majority of the students from the algebra National University of Lesotho indicated that their programme was rather informal. Both students and agency supervisors revealed that school supervisors did not ask for any written material on their assessment visits. On this basis, it is clear that without a guide or programme (curriculum to follow) it is difficult to achieve the objectives of fieldwork, let alone provide quality learning and mentoring for students, particularly in digital the case of unqualified supervisors. Support given to agency supervisors. It cannot be overstressed that field supervisors play an important role in the training of social workers. They are partners in the training process with responsibility to manage the transition from the classroom to the field and this requires support and continuous dialogue between the training institution, the agency supervisor and the agency. It is probably in recognition of this fact that the i need help algebra IASSW and IFSW spell out the need for training institutions to provide fieldwork manuals and orientation to tree is my essay in marathi, agency supervisors.
This enables them to appreciate expectations of their role it also ensures that students are given optimum opportunity to develop professional knowledge and skill. Notwithstanding the recognition that the role of agency supervisor is ever more prominent and important, this study found that there is no clear exposition of the process and nature of the teaching and learning required on fieldwork. It was reported that the training institutions are severely constrained in their efforts to help algebra, empower agency supervisors to perform their roles effectively. As pointed out earlier, the majority of the agency supervisors were just groping in the dark as they did not have a clear understanding of the term in badminton nature and i need with algebra, type of learning to provide students on great gatsby fieldwork. I Need Help Algebra? This is consistent with the view expressed by one non-social work agency supervisor that they experience problems completing students’ assessment forms at the end of the placement as some of passage essay great gatsby, them are not social workers and they also do not understand what is i need help algebra, expected of them. ”As a result most of the assessment forms are returned to the training institution incomplete” commented the supervisor.
With the increasing use of non- social work agency supervisors, the provision of cover letter, training and other supportive materials such as handbooks/manuals would go a long way in enhancing the quality of algebra, practice learning. Though the IASSW and IFSW (to which they are members) stipulate the need for training institutions to capacitate agency supervisors, none of the institutions had provided training or fieldwork materials in the five years prior to the study. In spite of the School of Social Work having a fieldwork-training manual, agency supervisors indicated that they did not have the manual, an indication that there is probably not much interaction between the institution and agency supervisors. Ironically, the study also found that all agency supervisors had not received any training or orientation prior to the commencement of fieldwork. Though it was reported that training workshops had been held in the past, such workshops need to be carried out regularly. In the case of the School of Social Work, the last training workshop was said to have taken place in 2001. As Shardlow and trocha, Doel (1996:4) observe, “learning, for a student on placement, does not just happen by osmosis; it requires effort and help with algebra, planning by both student and practice teacher”. These problems were reported to be largely as a result of cover medical journal article, lack of or under-funding of fieldwork related activities. Challenges in the management of fieldwork. The study also sought to find out challenges experienced in the management of fieldwork.
It was found that the shortage of qualified and with algebra, experienced supervisors, shortage of suitable fieldwork agencies, inadequate funding and timing of tree friend, fieldwork were the major challenges the institutions have to grapple with. These challenges are examined below: (a) Shortage of qualified agency supervisors. The shortage of i need with, qualified and tree friend essay, experienced agency supervisors was found to be a common problem. Invariably, qualified and experienced social workers should handle practical training in help social work. However, the situation obtaining in the three countries, that is, Lesotho, Tanzania and Zimbabwe is that not all social development and welfare agencies, where students can do their fieldwork, employ social workers. This is the case as it is not a requirement in the three countries for one to be registered as a social worker in order to medical journal submission, practice social work. Help Algebra? Resultantly, there is an infiltration of the tree friend essay profession as some of the i need algebra social welfare agencies are employing workers from letter journal article, other disciplines to carry out social work roles. What is also worrisome is that even in some agencies that are primary social work settings, students can be supervised by with algebra, non- social workers.
A typical example is that of the Department of Social Welfare in Zimbabwe, which started employing non- social workers from around 2002, ostensibly because of the shortage of social workers. Many social workers were reported to have left the country mainly to South Africa and the United Kingdom, owing to political and economic problems experienced then. In the case of NUL, this problem is also compounded by the timing of fieldwork as second, third and fourth year students go for fieldwork at the same time. This is a big challenge considering that a total of about 300 students have to be accommodated in the few agencies operating in the country. However, as social work is practiced in a variety of settings, it is thesis, inevitable that non- social workers will have to supervise social work students. Furthermore, in spite of with algebra, this crippling shortage of qualified agency supervisors, it needs to be acknowledged that non-social work agency supervisors have contributed significantly to the survival of the fieldwork programme at institutions covered in the study. (b) Shortage of suitable agencies for passage great gatsby, fieldwork. Both students and fieldwork coordinators confirmed that it was a nightmare securing fieldwork placements. In the case of the School of help with, Social Work in Harare, this problem was compounded by the fact that students were restricted to Harare-based agencies only, where the School is situated. It was indicated that owing to financial constraints, it was difficult for school supervisors to follow up students on paul resume fieldwork outside Harare.
Furthermore, Departments of Social Welfare in the three countries, which ideally should host the bulk of the students on fieldwork, were reportedly seriously short-staffed and algebra, not well resourced in terms office space and transport. Resultantly only a limited number of students could be absorbed. Also compounding the problem was competition from other programmes at the training institutions that were also sending their students for attachment at organisations that traditionally took social workers only. Apparently this was a problem at the three institutions covered in the study. Furthermore, as pointed out earlier, the timing of in badminton, fieldwork at NUL, where three groups go for the fieldwork at the same time is i need with algebra, also contributing to the shortage of suitable agencies. The challenge is placing about 300 students at one go. Financial support for students on fieldwork. The majority of the is my best essay in marathi students failed to understanding why they did not get fieldwork allowances and yet they had a longer academic year than other students. While third and fourth year students at NUL and at the ISW received allowances for fieldwork, the amount was considered to be very little and not even enough to i need help with, cover their transport costs. School of Social Work students indicated that they did not get any allowances for thesis, fieldwork.
On this basis students wondered how they were expected to apply themselves seriously “on an empty stomach”. It was complained that support levels for social work students’ are the same with students in purely academic programmes without a practical component. This is also an anomaly, if one considers that the academic year for social work students, unlike students in help algebra other programmes is extended by two to three months and that they also have to contend with transport and subsistence costs while on fieldwork. Lack of visitation by school supervisors. While school supervision visits provide opportunities for students and agency supervisors to get guidance in pursuing the objectives of the placement and also to assess their performance students such visits were reported to be erratic at one of the institutions. This obviously diminishes the importance of paul, fieldwork and it also undermines the learning process. A follow-up of this matter with the fieldwork coordinator concerned revealed that fieldwork does not always get a budgetary allocation and that if allocated it is always far from adequate. “Sometimes school supervisors use their own resources for supervision and algebra, obviously there is limit to which they can subsidise fieldwork” commented the fieldwork coordinator.
Highlighting the importance of supervision visits by school supervisors, Raphael and tree friend essay, Rosenblum (1987) observe that even the planning of these visits, has an energising effect on the placement. They assert that: “Knowing that a faculty member who represents the School will be coming on a specific date to review progress stimulates the i need with algebra field instructor and student to assess their progress. The heightened energy available at cover such times should be consciously used to facilitate change for educational purposes” (1987:158) Failure by school supervisors to i need algebra, assess students on fieldwork can have a very damaging effect on the morale of the student and agency supervisor and thesis, the placement in general. It can also affect relations between the training institution and fieldwork agencies. At one of the institutions it was reported that some agencies threatened to stop taking students if school supervisors did not make follow-up visits. While it is evident from the i need with study that fieldwork in social work education is marginalised, there are indeed very promising prospects of tree best friend essay in marathi, raising its effectiveness and quality of training. Of significance is that the institutions covered in the study treat fieldwork as a compulsory course notwithstanding the many challenges faced in its management. Furthermore, as pointed out elsewhere, it is also encouraging that the IASSW and IFSW came up with qualifying standards for social work education, fieldwork included. If adopted, these would go a long way in transforming fieldwork practice.
Specifically, these include, among others, the need to appoint qualified and experienced agency supervisors, the need to provide orientation and training to the same, the need for social work training institutions to develop fieldwork manuals and help with, also to ensure that the duration of digital, fieldwork is sufficient. Furthermore, while the challenges confronting the fieldwork component in the training of social workers require intervention at the highest level, that is government and management at training institutions, it is also necessary that those involved in fieldwork execute their roles and responsibilities effectively. Specifically, the fieldwork coordinator, agency supervisor, students and i need help with, school supervisors should be competent and resourceful in discharging their roles and responsibilities. Suggestions on strengthening fieldwork. It is clear that fieldwork in social work education faces a number of challenges. While the primary responsibility for addressing these challenges lies with the social work department or unit, there are issues that need the intervention of central administration at the training institution. Chief among these is inadequate funding for fieldwork related activities. Second is the lack of a clear learning content for fieldwork. Third, and on a related matter, is the lack of training for agency supervisors. In order to develop fieldwork to its fullest potential and to thesis physics, enhance the with quality of learning, it is necessary to adopt the following measures:
There is need to allocate and to thesis, increase the budget for fieldwork. Social work is a professional discipline that has both theoretical and practical components. There is therefore need for training institutions to allocate a separate budget for fieldwork in order to cater for the training of agency supervisors, school supervision, development of fieldwork manuals and other related activities. Development of fieldwork manuals. It is imperative that schools of social work develop their own fieldwork manuals, covering the teaching and learning content for fieldwork. This is particularly important considering that each institution is unique in terms of the prevailing socio-economic conditions, challenges and experiences, the social work education curriculum in a given country.
Manuals are a useful resource for social work educators, students and i need help with algebra, agency supervisors. Introduction of a taught course on fieldwork theory and practice. While the academic component of social work education (theory courses) also prepares students for their field education, it is the view of the author that fieldwork should have a taught component (in class). This will address two concerns. First, is the concern that students lack knowledge and understanding of learning experiences on fieldwork. On Quantum? This would therefore prepare students for actual practice and also facilitate the learning process during fieldwork. Secondly, there seems to be a lack of interest on fieldwork issues among social work scholars, which partly explains the paucity of literature on the subject. A taught component on fieldwork would contribute towards generating research interest on fieldwork issues among social work scholars.
In making this suggestion, the author is aware that the Institute of Social Work in Tanzania has a theory course on field instruction that students take before proceeding for i need help with algebra, field practice. Total duration of block fieldwork. While the duration of fieldwork varies at the three institutions, it is recommended that the total duration be at least six months, which is 960 contact hours. This is based on the view that fieldwork needs to be long enough for students and field supervisors to accomplish their objectives for the placement. With regard to the number of placements at the undergraduate level, it is necessary to have two, preferably in term in badminton the last two years of training. However, this should be at different agencies, which gives students varied experience through learning to adjust to new situations. Dominelli, L. (2002) International Association of Schools of Social Work Directory.
UK, IASSW and Department of Social Work, University of Southampton. Hall, N. (1990) Social Work Training in Africa: A Fieldwork Manual. Harare, Journal of Social Development in help with algebra Africa. Hepworth, D.H, Rooney, R. and Larsen, J.A. (2002) Direct Social Work Practice: Theory and Skills. U.S.A., Brooks/Cole.
IASSW and IFSW (2004) Global Standards for the Education and Training of the digital Social work Profession. Bern, Switzerland, Sage. Kaseke, E. (1986) The Role of Fieldwork in Social Work Training, in: Social Development and i need help algebra, Rural Fieldwork. Proceedings of a workshop held in Harare. Harare, Journal of Social Development in Africa, pp. Letter Journal Article? 52-62. Kaseke, E. (1990) Foreword, in: Hall, N. Help Algebra? Social Work Training in Africa: A Fieldwork Manual.
Harare, Journal of Social Development in Africa. Mupedziswa, R. (1997) Training Social Workers in an Environment of Economic Reforms: The Mother of all Challenges? In: Social Work/Maatskaplke Werk Vol. 33 (33) Osei-Hwedie, K. (1996) The Indigenisation of Social Work Practice and Education, in: Africa: The Dilemma of Theory and Method in Social Work/Maatskaplike Werk, 32 (3) Raphael, F. B. and Rosenblum, A. Passage Gatsby? F. (1987) “An Operational Guide to the Faculty Field Liaison Role”, in: Social Casework: The Journal of Contemporary Social Work, March, pp.156-163. Royse, D., Dhooper, S. and Rompf, E. (2007) Field Instruction: A Guide for Social Work Students. Boston, Pearson Educational Inc. Safari, J. (1986) The Role of Fieldwork in the Training of Social Workers for Rural Development in: Social Development and Rural Fieldwork, Proceedings of a Workshop held 10-14 June, Harare.
Zimbabwe. Journal of Social Development in Africa, pp 74-80. Shardlow, S. and Doel, M. (1996) Practice Learning and Teaching. I Need? London, Macmillan Press Ltd.