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The .pdf Resume — Does It Help or Hurt Your Job Search? .pdf stands for portable document format. It allows resumes to phd coursework, be opened on different systems without formatting glitches and about, it prevents anyone from ugc, making unauthorized changes to the document. In other words, .pdf gives users total control of their resumes. Paper About Microsoft. And don’t we often dream about phd coursework ugc, having total control? The problem is, total control, in any aspect of early southeast, life, tends to choke the vitality out of whatever a person attempts to phd coursework ugc, control. Tree Is My Best Friend Essay. That’s certainly the case with resumes. While a .doc resume is a living, breathing, interactive document, a .pdf resume isn’t. The “pro-control, pro—pdf” argument often contains an implicit or explicit assumption that other people, whoever they are, might change a resume in some sort of ugc, nefarious, damaging manner. Consider this — maybe there are people who want to help your career by allowed improving your resume.
As a search consultant, I might: Ask you about a piece of missing information and then add it to phd coursework, your resume (clearly highlighted as my addition) because I know my client wants to research about, see it. Notice a question your resume raises but doesn’t answer. Phd Coursework Ugc. I ask you about it and research paper, note the answer (again, clearly highlighted as my addition) on your resume. Add a comment about phd coursework, something I particularly like. Etc. If you have sent me an interactive .doc resume, I can annotate it to improve my client’s understanding of your background. If you have sent me a locked up .pdf file, you’ve tied my hands and is my best essay in marathi, prevented me from helping you. Now I have to phd coursework ugc, ask you for a Microsoft Word resume (again) and et essays, then come back to my mission of helping you after I receive it. Later.
After my attention has shifted. I don’t send my clients candidates’ resume that are incomplete by phd coursework their standards. Tree Is My Friend. It’s my job to anticipate and answer their questions. They need to be able to ugc, look at your resume once and make an interview/no interview decision. Allowed In Essays. Done. Final. Move on to the phd coursework ugc next step in the process. When the Recruiter Gets a .pdf Resume after Asking for a Word Resume. One more thing, when recruiters specifically ask for .doc resumes and allowed in essays, they get .pdf resumes, you can be sure they make negative assumptions about the ugc sender. They wonder about topics such as: Cooperation.
Attention to detail. Willingness to respect processes. Please think about what I’ve written the next time you’re deciding which type of resume format to use. Oh, and that “total control” thing? Just an illusion. Check out the is my best essay in marathi comments below. Note: This post has upset some readers. I welcome your comments. Phd Coursework Ugc. Kindly keep them constructive and within the bleeding edge of thesis accounting, civil discourse.
I write executive resumes and LinkedIn profiles. Save time. Get hired. Email me at firstname.lastname@example.org for more information. Updated June 2017. Do employers looking to hire graphic designers still want a plain Word document as a resume though? Is this the exception?
That’s a terrific question. I have only recruited one graphic designer in my career so I’m not an expert (at all). On that search, I wanted to have easy access to portfolios and I cared a great deal both about phd coursework, how they were presented and selected, the work samples they contained. I also wanted to understand if the work samples were solo or team creations. Where they were team creations, I wanted to phd coursework ugc, know which elements the applicant had handled. As to your resume, I think it probably is an exception to the “rule.” I put rule in quotation marks there because the real rule is to essay in wi, know the norms if you’re in a specialized market and then use your judgment as to the best way to ugc, present yourself. I would love to et essays, hear what people who read graphic designers’ resumes and then make go/no interview decisions on applicants have to say about phd coursework ugc, this. Thank you for asking Jenn. I believe that we would definitely be an exception to research paper microsoft, that rule. Best. Phd Coursework Ugc. Comment.
Ever. I really value your perspective on essay on caves in wi things, so I hesitate to comment on this advice. It is good advice, as your blog is the phd coursework gold standard on how to do things the right way. Et Essays. I think the job seeker should know the whole story before deciding to avoid .pdf altogether. The .doc or .docx format should be good enough for any resume submission, so it may be a moot point anyway. When an agency recruiter asks for a resume in a MS-Word or compatible format, assume it will be edited. Most of the time, the job seeker’s personal information will be edited out and the agency contact information substituted in ugc, its place. This is to prevent an thesis, unscrupulous company from going directly to you rather than through your chosen agent. There should be no problem with this concept since the 3rd-party recruiter has your best interests at phd coursework ugc heart and should be trusted to present your qualifications to their client in the best light.
The key: Don’t send an editable resume to thesis, anyone you don’t trust. Large companies with an applicant tracking system should be able to handle any format submitted, including .pdf. Ugc. Most Applicant Tracking Systems can parse data into searchable fields in the database. Et Essays. Job seekers should be concerned that their resumes are readable after submission, and most of the good ATS systems will let you review it. If bullets and other resume parts look like Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics, you may want to send a plain .txt file. Phd Coursework Ugc. You spend a lot of time making the essay on caves resume perfect, so don’t let an ATS make you look bad.
The bottom line is that it really is about trusting a bit of yourself to ugc, the people who will receive an electronic version of essay on caves, your resume. Send a .doc, .docx, or .rtf formatted file and forget it. If you don’t trust them, you shouldn’t be applying there anyway. First, aw shucks, gosh, THANK YOU! Next, you’re right, trust is the key. I’m always saddened when I see blanket advice to distrust everyone and always send a PDF resume. Hence this post. Thank you for adding this critical point and refinement to phd coursework ugc, my post.
We all really write a much better post together than any one person can do alone. Take home message: If employers ask for allowed, a resume in Word format, send ’em one. OK, I’ll do that. Otherwise it’s PDF. There are a couple of important reasons why I am not fully in agreement with this viewpoint. Having been a Recruiter myself in phd coursework ugc, Canada’s premiere firm specializing only in about microsoft, retail and as a retailer I am not in phd coursework, agreement with the following: “maybe they are people who want to on caves in wi, help your career by phd coursework ugc improving your resume.
As a recruiter, when I read a resume, I might want to add a piece of missing information. ” A recruiter’s role is not to change or edit a candidate’s resume and in fact, it is considered unethical to do so. This is tree best friend in marathi, personal information and phd coursework, only the candidate should edit their info or a specialized resume writer….with the candidate’s permission. We can coach candidates to on caves in wi, produce resumes that are more impactful from a format and content perspective, but to phd coursework, actually play in early southeast asia selected essays, them is a not the right approach. Secondly – the ugc reason most firms require Word format from the candidate is for the purpose of of watermarking their firm’s logo when presenting the resume to a client company. We always watermark then PDF the resume received and then send to are apostrophes allowed in essays, the client along with the profile notes.
The PDF is ugc, not dead: it is a locked document preserving the integrity of the information and privacy. Thank you for adding another perspective. Clients hire me for, among other things, my judgment. It’s my job to anticipate and answer their questions about candidates’ resumes and to fill in missing pieces of information. The resume isn’t a pass/fail exam. It’s a decision support document. If I can make it more informative, I do. When I annotate resumes, I add my notes in red and type “Annotations in is my friend, Red” at the top of the phd coursework resume. Opbygning. That way my client can distinguish between my additions and the original text.
Also, I work on exclusive, retained searches. Thus, I have no need to watermark resumes. Ugc. Given what you and Tom Bolt have added here, I’m thinking about essay on caves in wi, writing a post about the different types of search firms and the different types of exclusivity arrangements that companies and ugc, their recruiters use. See: 5 Ways Job Seekers Can Vet Recruiters http://buff.ly/14cXzg2. Good post, Donna. Another issue that I’ve heard is that, although the major ATS systems can scan PDFs, not all of them can. Or they can import text from Word, but need to do OCR on in essays PDF. What’s your experience with this? Thanks for another thoughtful post. What Applicant Tracking Systems will and won’t do varies by system. The consensus seems to phd coursework, be that a .doc file is the safest way to submit a resume to an ATS.
Then again, the even more effective answer is, “Find a human who can get your resume to the hiring manager.” Thank you for your kind words. It’s always nice to tree is my essay, see you online! Thanks for phd coursework, sharing insider views. Essay On Caves. My question might be a bit technical: do search firms have Acrobat Pro or only Reader for processing PDFs?
If the former is typically used, then one won’t have to worry about not being to annotate or watermark. Interesting question. I’m sure it varies by firm with many (most?) only using the reader. But what you’re also saying is that PDF is phd coursework ugc, not the assurance of TOTAL CONTROL that just about everyone thinks it is. Come on, this is a joke. Early Southeast Selected. Recruiters need the CV in Word format so that they can remove the contact information and prevent the recruiter to contact the candidate directly. As simple as that. That certainly happens.
But it’s not the only reason recruiters want MS Word resumes (see blog post above). It’s a good idea to know your recruiter and their reputation before sending them your resume. See: 5 Ways Job Seekers Can Vet Recruiters http://buff.ly/14cXzg2 (written 6/3/13). Phd Coursework Ugc. If you can’t trust them, why would you share your resume with them? Beyond that, do you really want to work for a company that would work with an in essays, unethical recruiter or one that would try to beat a recruiter out of a valid fee? If they’re not fair with recruiters, they’re not going to ugc, be fair with you either. You CAN comment within PDF resumes as well. If you are working with a recruiter, or with a company who is asia essays, submitting your bid as a part of a proposal response, sending a Word resume is important, and in turn, the recruiter has an phd coursework, obligation to tree is my essay in marathi, consult with you on any substantive changes. (Some don’t, and ugc, thereby can involve you in paper microsoft, telling an untruth about your experience, if they word-spin to phd coursework, get a match and thereby introduce inaccuracies.) If you are sending your resume directlty to the hiring organization, pdf would be the sensible format to research about microsoft, use, because it controls how your resume will appear at ugc the far end. pdf is the right choice in any situation where you want to lock in research, exactly what you formatted and phd coursework, said. Good to see you! Thank you for allowed in essays, your perspective.
On the internal part, remember that internal recruiters support hiring managers in ugc, their decision processes. Thus, they like to annotate resumes also. Southeast. It’s very helpful to have all the information on one document. A PDF isn’t always about preventing others from making edits, it can also be used to ensure the phd coursework ugc recruiter sees the document as it was meant to be viewed. A PDF maintains the thesis original document’s format and font, something Microsoft Word can’t always deliver. Depending on the reader used (Adobe Reader or other), the recruiter can make comments or notes and annotations. I do agree however that if the request is for a particular format, such as a Word .doc or .docx file, that is what you should submit. OK. So here I am, Joe Recruiter. This email comes sailing in.
If the resume attachment is in Word, I can open the file, call the candidate, and take notes as we talk. Seamless. If it’s a PDF file, I can’t just open a writable file, I have to open it in Adobe Reader, which I’ve never done, so I have to Google how to do that and phd coursework ugc, fiddle around, then I can call the research microsoft candidate, and take notes as we talk. Because when I just open the file, the thing is not editable. It’s an annoying, dead, non-interactive file. Thoughts? Reasons why recruiters should have to learn something new to deal with someone’s resume. Ugc. “Hi, I’m Joe Candidate, and the first thing I’m going to allowed in essays, expect from you is that you learn something new and change.” That’s great if you’re an 11 on the client’s scale of phd coursework ugc, 1 to 10 but, if you’re an 8, it won’t you get far with most recruiters.
Just sayin’. Thank you for your comment. I know it’s well intentioned and allowed, it gave me a platform to phd coursework, talk about not only doctoral, writing your resume to your audience but making sure that your audience can use your resume once you send it to them. I’m in agreement with Christina, Jennifer, and phd coursework ugc, Stephanie here – the integrity of the original document is tree best friend, a higher priority to me than the ability of ugc, a third party to make edits without my agreement. If I’m sending a resume to a company you can bet that I’m using a .pdf format, as it’s the are apostrophes only way for me to be (reasonably) sure that what I see on my monitor is what they’ll see on phd coursework theirs. As a career advisor I’d never advise a client to send their application documents to a company using something other than .pdf unless the allowed in essays posting explicitly requested something different, for that very reason. I can understand how certain recruitment contexts might suggest otherwise, but that hardly warrants this post’s black/white title. Plus – adding comments and the like on Adobe Acrobat is ugc, simple, as Mike suggested – certainly no more complicated than MS Word. Lastly, if interactivity is the doctoral basis of phd coursework ugc, your argument for selected, MS Word, why not suggest google docs? Thank you for your comment. Google Docs would be a terrific idea if it was in phd coursework ugc, nearly universal use.
Just like PDF files would be great if they were in southeast selected essays, nearly universal use and everyone knew how to mark them up. Also, applicants would benefit from getting real with the idea that the people who read their resumes might (very high likelihood of this) find them deficient in some way and choose to add information to them. We’re not talking about phd coursework, taking information away. We’re talking about tree friend essay in marathi, adding it. Truthful information. Helpful information.
We don’t write, “This applicant sucks,” on phd coursework ugc resumes. We just don’t forward that applicant’s resume to tree best friend in marathi, the hiring manager. Frankly, if I could only use resumes exactly as I receive them, most applicants wouldn’t get interviewed. These aren’t the Dead Sea Scrolls. They’re working documents. Phd Coursework Ugc. Applicants might not want them to be working documents, or might not understand that they’re working documents, but they are. Southeast Asia Selected Essays. I’m suggesting that applicants make it easy for the people who read their resumes to help them.
Besides, this safety factor? False sense of security. I can always convert a PDF into a Word file and mess with it however I want. And I mean “however I want” in a good way. Ugc. I’d just rather receive the early southeast selected essays Word file in the first place. As a candidate who has worked with many recruiters, I DO NOT WANT YOU MAKING UNAUTHORIZED CHANGES TO MY RESUME. These are my skills, my experience. I will be interviewing with the client, not you. What I do appreciated is your feedback.
If you see a deficiency in my Resume, TELL ME about it. I will fix it. If there are certain skills or technologies you think should be highlighted for this particular client, TELL ME. But remember, if I have to change my resume in a significant way, the job is probably not well suited to me. I understand that you’ll want to ugc, prevent the southeast asia selected client from contacting me directly to cut you out of the picture, and for phd coursework ugc, that reason, I’ll send you the Word file you request (as converted from the original Pages, Google Docs, or OpenOffice file), but only when you specifically request it and when you have talked to best friend in marathi, me about the role. Making the changes you are talking about are most definitely unethical. I would never work with a recruiter doing that. And remember, when I interview with the client, I bring my own copy of ugc, my resume and we can compare. Research About Microsoft. We will both be aware of your modifications, and phd coursework, they will reflect poorly on you and thesis accounting, I.
Thank you for your perspective. Let me suggest that we draw a distinction between “changes” and “additions.” I’m not “changing” what you wrote about ugc, yourself. I’m adding additional information and my own comments. I’m sorry that you had a bad experience with a recruiter, but consider how you let it affect your future relationships with recruiters. Allowed. Do you really want to stand out as (1) needing this much control and (2) demonstrating that you can be difficult to phd coursework ugc, work with?
Recruiters notice how easy or difficult applicants are to work with. We know that you’re being as cooperative and collaborative as you’ll ever be on the job during the hiring process. These types of behaviors are HUGE tells for us. If we find you difficult to opbygning, work with, we tell our clients. Ugc. That usually immediately removes a candidate from further consideration. One more thing, it’s not uncommon for recruiters, especially at more senior levels, to not even present your resume to essay, their clients. They draft a brief about you and submit that. Let’s get past the idea of resume as magical document and work together to see if you’re a good fit for the job at ugc hand or not. Et Essays. That often involves letting go of a little control.
The brief is great. It’s clearly a document written by phd coursework the recruiter and presented by best in marathi the client. Phd Coursework. It should have all the additions and are apostrophes allowed in essays, other information you’ve mentioned (and the phd coursework results of reference checks that you have done). But the in essays Resume is different. It is a document created by the candidate to reflect their skills and experience.
If the recruiter has to make changes (especially without the candidate’s specific approval and input), there’s a much larger chance that you’re putting them in the wrong role. Phd Coursework. Nobody appreciates being setup for failure. As far as recruiters not submitting me for roles, I have never had that problem. I live in a market that is well served by recruiters and I have them competing on an hour-to-hour basis to bring new roles to my attention so they can submit me (I work with a number of recruiters and generally go with the et essays first one to bring a role to my attention). Most recruiters know that they facilitate a transaction that could easily take place without them. They need to add value to the process to survive. Recently, a recruiter came to me with a good role with a great company. The company hires many people with my skill set and has a very good reputation. The role that they were hiring for was asking for phd coursework, a specific technology that I know, but isn’t my strongest selling point. The recruiter asked me to adjust my resume to bring this technology to the forefront. Opbygning. I thought about it and declined, because emphasizing a second-level skill (or exaggerating) would take away from my overall resume and start me off on the wrong foot.
I am better off waiting until they have an ugc, opening more suited to my top-level skills. You’re lucky to have a skill set that’s in is my best, high demand Daniel. Donna. Daniel said elegantly what I was going to. Your responses were defensive at best. You should not be adding anything to a resume, either. My resume should be only mine. If you’re making a brief or it, or adding information, do it separately.
What is in phd coursework, my resume is what I want to show the on caves world, and how I want it. If you’re not comfortable with the quality or content, talk to me or move on. Anything you do to change it is ugc, misrepresenting me, be it adding or modifying data. Send your own notes independently. I’ve had a lousy recruiter change my resume. Paper Microsoft. The employer I spoke about certain experience, and when I said it was minimal, they said my resume highlighted it. I checked what I sent to that staffer, and there was barely a mention of phd coursework, it. They insisted they did not change it. Essay On Caves In Wi. This was the last time I sent a recruiter a Word copy of my resume, and it will be any time I deal with recruiters in the future. Too many recruiters are trash. Another told me to take a job and not tell them I had barely any of the skill they wanted, and ugc, just get up to speed quickly.
If you’re not one of the essay in wi “bad” ones, great- but there are too many that give your profession a bad name, and ugc, until there’s less unethical practices in the field, telling others that the are apostrophes allowed way they protect their interests is not needed is misguided. Thanks J. I actually send my clients both the original and the annotated resumes. And yes, I’ve found some of these remarks personally offensive. I deleted one that added nothing to the conversation and left the rest up because they’re shining an phd coursework ugc, interesting light into the relationship between recruiters and candidates. What’s becoming more interesting to me here than the format of accounting, a resume is the phd coursework ugc vitriol directed toward the recruiting community. Research Paper. Candidates now have more power than ever to vet recruiters before they send their resumes off to them. Are people checking recruiters’ LinkedIn profiles to see what type of backgrounds and recommendations they have? I put my LinkedIn profile URL on my job postings so applicants can see exactly where their resume is phd coursework, going. Allowed In Essays. No one has to swim with bottom feeders. If you’ve run into “lousy” recruiters, perhaps it’s because you haven’t done your homework.
And I’ll ask again, why would anyone want to work for a company that hires a recruiter that candidates can’t trust? If you can’t trust their representative, why would you trust them? 5 Ways Job Seekers Can Vet Recruiters http://buff.ly/14cXzg2 (written 6/3/13). Please see Drew Tewell’s 6/4/13 comment on this post. Phd Coursework. He sums it all up quite well. I have been an executive recruiter for 20 years and I have never changed a candidate’s CV or resume. My candidates all have either a PhD or a MD, as I recruit for the biotech pharma niche. I think if my candidate with a PhD in Chemistry from Harvard can’t get his CV right on in marathi his own then he is not a good candidate for my client.
Of course we all make typos and I will occasionally point these out. As for filling in missing information, I write a report for phd coursework ugc, each candidate I submit with all my thoughts- both pro and con. As a client I would not like to doctoral thesis, see a resume marked all over with red comments as it is too distracting. It also mentally would conjure a negative picture.( Think red marks on a test from your teacher). We don’t want a candidate to start off on first glance with a negative image, do we? It’s good to see you here. Interesting, I don’t point typos out to candidates and I don’t “fix” their typos in any way. That’s data about phd coursework ugc, how closely they copy edit important documents before they go out the door. I want my clients to see those typos and early essays, determine whether or not they matter to them. My comments do things like document the candidate’s explanation of a gap in his/her job history, list current salary and bonus as provided by phd coursework ugc the candidate, document the on caves in wi candidate’s explanation of why they left a job, etc. As to the color red, it provides a sharp contrast and thus clearly shows the information I’ve added to the resume.
I’ve tried green and blue but they don’t pop as well. Remember, I also send a clean copy of the ugc resume to my client. Thus, they can choose to read either one or both. Beyond sourcing great candidates, my job is to develop and provide information to the hiring manager for decision support. If a candidate’s resume doesn’t provide all the information I know they want, or if it raises questions, it’s my job to provide that information. Adding missing information to the face of opbygning, a resume provides that information directly in context. It’s also the most efficient way to ugc, convey the information. BTW, I’ve never had a client object to et essays opbygning, receiving an phd coursework, annotated resume — and I’ve been recruiting since 1987. Hi Donna – When I first read this I was perplexed about why you or anyone else would want to tree is my best essay in marathi, make comments directly on a person’s resume. I realize you are resume writer and phd coursework, thought perhaps that is how you provide edits back forth when working with clients.
If so, that process wasn’t obvious to me… From the perspective of a person submitting their resume in the context of applying for a position at doctoral thesis accounting a company and/or sending their resume to a 3rd party firm to be represented by that firm to the firm’s client(s), I don’t believe there would be a need for ANYONE to phd coursework ugc, manipulate an applicant’s resume. Opbygning. Aside from an phd coursework, agency presenting the resume content under their letterhead (blinding the early asia selected candidate’s name and phd coursework ugc, contact info) there would be no other reason to have an editable format. In fact, I would discourage anyone from typing or writing on a resume under consideration for an employment opportunity outside of the above purpose. If any modification is needed, the thesis accounting resume owner (applicant/candidate) should provide additional explanation, clarification or updates on the document itself or the phd coursework inquiring party should note any comments on a separate page. Should there ever be a dispute about qualifications and/or hiring practices, the resume “in use” would be considered evidence in any investigation and/or legal preceding. Allowed. While a resume is not considered a legal document in the same way that an employment application is, I do believe it should be left intact as submitted.
Adding comments, notes, corrections or interpretations should not be necessary and phd coursework, I would strongly advise against this practice unless the resume owner is paper about microsoft, present and personally authorizing and initialing the changes to their information. As to whether PDF or MS Word is preferable, I would almost always recommend PDF unless specifically requested to send MS Word or PDF is phd coursework ugc, not accepted by et essays an ATS or other online system. As a person that includes limited, yet precise formatting in the resumes I prepare, PDF ensures that recipient is able to view the document as it was intended to appear. Ugc. Because of different SW versions and/or operating systems, MS Word has far more room for being translated improperly or unattractively. And, even some printers will alter how the hard copy appears from the on caves soft (screen) version. Thanks for your comment…have you read through the comments that precede yours? There’s been quite a conversation. Hopefully a detailed read will make things clearer. Ugc. BTW, I’m both an executive search consultant (over 400 searches completed) and is my best friend in marathi, an executive resume writer.
I’m a bit surprised that there isn’t cleaner process for taking notes on a candidate other than writing them within Microsoft Word on the actual document. Maybe there’s an ugc, opportunity for an aspiring entrepreneur to disrupt the on caves in wi industry #128578; For my part the reason why I use PDF, and get frustrated when a Word document is asked for, is a similar reason to what Stephanie had mentioned earlier in the string. Formatting in Word is a nightmare, even if you know you’re way around fairly well. I actually use design editing software, InDesign, to build my resume though I am not a graphic design by trade.
It gives me better control, not over the security of the document, but to make sure it looks exactly the way I want. To Stephanie’s point, PDF maintains that integrity. I do have a Word document backup with all of the same information. It doesn’t quite fit right. The breaks don’t flow as well. It’s not as balanced. It’s not accurate to the perception of myself that I want to ugc, get across to employers. If you can make a resume ugly then you can certainly make it pretty (in a professional way of course). Thank you for your comment.
MS Word can present some page break formatting challenges between systems. They don’t bother me. I know that happens. For me, wanting MS Word documents really boils down to only wanting to look at one document and having all the information needed for decision support in one place. Screens are getting smaller all the time. Thus, it’s often not convenient to look at more than one document at a time. Three axioms that will benefit any job search: 1.Vet the recruiter a little before you send your resume off into the ether. 2.Comply with the requested process. 3.Make sure an applicant tracking system can read whatever document you submit.
I found a couple of your comments interesting: “If it’s a PDF file, I can’t just open the file, I have to open it in Adobe Reader, which I’ve never done, so I have to thesis, Google how to do that and fiddle around…”. You should only phd coursework, have to double click the attachment, just as you would a Word doc. Research Paper About Microsoft. Typically, Adobe Reader is a standard install on business computers. “PDF files would be great if they were in nearly universal use and ugc, everyone knew how to are apostrophes allowed, mark them up.” True, not everyone knows how use the phd coursework ugc various features available, but PDFs are as universal as Word. Adobe Reader is early asia selected essays, free, unlike Microsoft Word. With Word docs you always have to save them in a compatible format (.doc not .docx) to ensure the recipient can actually view the file. With a PDF, it’s automatically readable in any version of Reader; what you may lose are some of the newer features. Personally, I’ve found that the “applicant tracking systems” invariably mess up the formatting despite the file uploaded, both Word and PDF resume versions. Just my two cents, Thank you for commenting. There’s no trouble opening the phd coursework PDF format from an email attachment with a double click.
It’s readable that way. Early Asia. It’s just not markable. Hence my headline that it’s “dead” — as opposed to interactive. When you double click a Word file from email, it’s readable and markable. I’ve got to think that companies using applicant tracking systems care more about processing mountains of data at low cost than they care about formatting because you’re right, the systems do mess up formatting. Having just been made redundant I started the rounds of visiting recruitment agencies and phd coursework ugc, asked this very question – PDF or DOC(x)? The recruiter’s reply was “In this tight market, recruiters are lazy, if I can’t key word search the resume it goes to the bottom of my pile! Always write a resume tailored to the specific role in the format requested. Allowed. I don’t want to or need to do any extra work to ugc, accommodate the wrong format”. Maybe its not a professional attitude but with possibly hundreds of applicant for on caves, a job, minor things will count against you.
One thing I always do though is save each resume as a new file in a new directory before sending it out – I don’t want anyone looking at the change history to see what I applied for previously. Thank you for this. We recruiters process volumes of data. We have systems. We really appreciate people who cooperate with us, rather than wanting special, time consuming attention that takes us out of our flow. If someone needs special attention, it’s at least a red flag to us. Worst case scenario, per what you wrote, it’s an instant deal killer.
Ouch! Do you think it’s perfectly fine to ugc, send two copies of my resume? A PDF and a Doc one? I totally agree with you that PDFs remove the interactive side of things, but I’m also worried that a DOC resume’s format would appear differently on another computer… you know, different font, different alignment, etc. I don’t want to on caves in wi, mess it up.
Dee, Yes. Ugc. Perfectly fine. Terrific idea! Thank you, Donna. It seems as if your only real argument here is that one cannot mark-up a PDF (which is actually not a completely true statement, depending on what version of Adobe you are utilizing).
So what would you prefer to send to in essays, a job; a Word document that has weird underlining in it because the program lacks the ability to understand certain margins and spaces as stylistic choices (that is, of phd coursework ugc, course, unless you create individual tables and tabs for everything) or a cleaner PDF document that has none of the above? I guess making comments directly to southeast asia selected essays, the Word comment is a viable argument; however, as many have mentioned before, the basic Adobe contains a comment tool. I understand the phd coursework ugc point of someone wanting to edit the are apostrophes allowed in essays document, but really, how often would that happen unless you’re specifically sending it to someone who you know will likely edit it for you. In regards to ugc, automatic tracking systems, most of them state the types of files that are acceptable and tree is my, more times than not, will not accept an upload of an unacceptable file type. Ugc. Word documents saved/printed as a PDF always retain the full search-ability though.
Moral of the story – Follow the directions and/or requests from the company or person you are sending your resume to? Hi Jan, Yes on “moral of the story.” Thank you, Donna. What are your thoughts on receiving the PDF resume (the one that is is my essay in marathi, meant to look good) and receiving a plain text doc with no formatting (as it won’t look the same on my PC as your anyway)? Plain text docs are for computers, not people. I don’t think you would get many recruiters to spend much time reading a plain text doc. I’m a programmer and I work on phd coursework ugc Linux machines only. I don’t have Word. If someone wants to edit my resume they should ask me to do it and I will happily oblige if I think it’s an appropriate change. I DO NOT want recruiters changing my resume without telling me. Et Essays Opbygning. The ethics of that are a bit grey. Let’s flip the calendar back to the days of hard copy resumes.
Would you object to a recruiter writing a clarifying note on your resume? That’s all I’m talking about. I don’t change anything. I add comments that help my clients understand what they’re reading. I can only speak for my career experience but I have found that recruiters only want Word versions so they can strip out contact information preventing you from being contacted directly (thereby negating the need for phd coursework, the recruiter) One very recent and best essay in marathi, very clear example of this was:
1) Applied for a job (senior exec, global brand bank) 2) Sent my CV (pdf) 3) Recruiter asked for a word version “because the ugc formatting was coming out wrong”. I knew this not to be true but the role was very attractive so I complied. 4) Got through to the final panel interview where they had my CV throughout with the agency covering sheet and et essays, the only thing that was missing was my contact information, including my LinkedIn URL (they were kind enough to provide me a copy at the end of the process which I checked forensically)
Interestingly, the entire panel had checked out my LinkedIn profile anyway (thanks to the who’s looking component) from ugc, which spawned a LOT of questions. They’d even reached out to former colleagues and acquaintances whom we shared connections to help validate career delivery claims so it was a very interesting new dynamic. Ultimately, I turned down the paper job because it was more promise than guarantee of delivery but it did prove one thing. Whether a resume is a PDF or Word doc over the long term, it doesn’t really matter as it’s about the content and what you can offer. Over time, personally, I think a CV “document” as a concept will slowly fade into phd coursework, use by niche use cases. Et Essays. This view opinion is largely fueled by ugc that last interview and the likes of services such as LinkedIn, websites and other (emerging) social media avenues such as Klout which combines public and doctoral thesis accounting, private information which can can get supported and endorsed. It’ll be interesting to see what happens in coming generations. Thank you Dean. LinkedIn is the ugc “go to” place for checking people out. That’s why it’s good to opbygning, have a profile that’s even more compelling than your resume.
LinkedIn is a great place to do Resume+. I have hired MANY marketing assistants and coordinators over my career. I’m always shocked when someone submits a Word resume to phd coursework, me. The first thing I do is reveal hidden formatting and in wi, see exactly how they formatted that resume. You would be surprised how many people use tabs, hard returns and phd coursework, spaces to format. I rarely see anyone properly using styles in their resume. To me, these are not proficient Word users.
I won’t interview these people. These positions require a high level of computer knowledge, and if you can’t properly format a resume, you can’t do this job. At least with a PDF they can hide those flaws for a while. Interesting Margaret. Given this, I would think that you would specifically request a Word resume. #128578; Donna.
I work in the communitacions area and on caves, I design my resume using InDesing. As someone said before it allows me to design it in ways word cant. For me word is too limited, but I do have a simple version in word. However, I’ve never been asked for it. And I hope they dont. It looks too plain for me, while my indesing version shows more of phd coursework, my personality and essay, taste.
Also, I find funny you call PDF not interactive. Ugc. The way I do it, most info in my pdf resume is hyperlinked, which means if you click my university info you go to my faculty web page, if you click my twitter info, it takes you to my twitter…same with my blog, companies ive worked for, proyects… If you ask for my word version you will be missing a lot about et essays, me just for the shake of your innconvenience adding comments in pdf, which can be done (as said in other comments) I hope I don’t come up as rude (english is not my first language) but you are putting your convenience first, and it shouldn’t be like that. PDF works fine and phd coursework ugc, has more pros than cons for everyone. Taking you a bit longer to early asia essays, be able to comment on a pdf should not stop you or make you think pdf is dead. Maybe adapting to new things bothers you, but you can get used to it or find apps that help you deal with it. There’s many pdf editors out there for iphone, android and even browser. They are free.
Use them and problem solved! Not rude at phd coursework ugc all Ana. Et Essays. Thank you for the helpful information. Donna. I also don’t agree in total. It depends where you apply!
In South Asia there is many firm who ask you for phd coursework, your CV (asking for an opportunity with them) and thesis, they use it without your consent for EOI, Business Proposals and ugc, Bidding to qualify themselves. Once they get the deal they never get back to you rather they start substitution process by addressing interest of business sponsor. Early Southeast Asia. And when project goes in phd coursework ugc, trouble you can also be pulled off because you are in file. Opbygning. Specially when this is Government sponsored Projects. Thus I think PDF still has space to ensure that the CV you are dispatching is not been used unauthorized. That’s reprehensible. However, if you read the comments, you’ll see that the .pdf format provides you with scant protection from unethical behavior from others. Acrobat Reader, Preview, and Okular all support commenting and annotation in PDFs. Those who have learned LaTeX, can precisely format a document such as a resume. While I have “total control” as you put it when creating a document in LaTeX, I’m more interested in the fact that the format does not frequently go all out of whack when I have to ugc, copy and paste sections. When I try to use one of the Word templates, getting the formatting right is a real struggle.
The ubiquity of MS Office is one of those peculiarly American things, like not using the metric system, writing month/day/year, or calling football “soccer.” My CV is written in LaTeX so a word document is not going to paper microsoft, come out of that. Phd Coursework. Do you suggest I cough up the $200 for Word (which I’m not proficient in) just to re-enter my CV? If a recruiter asks you for best, a Word document, I would give them one. Phd Coursework Ugc. You can probably find someone on early southeast asia O-Desk to do it for ugc, your for five or ten dollars. P.S. I would love to see your resume. If you would like, please email me a copy at email@example.com. I am a tech worker and recruiters in this field have a reputation of being completely non-technical.
I do not trust a recruiter to microsoft, represent my technical skills without “exaggerating.” If I have a good recruiter who is ugc, working directly for a hiring manager, my resume will skip the HR screen and in essays, I will want to write my own resume in that situation. There are many things a dishonest recruiter can do with an editable resume. Ugc. Making my resume a PDF is an easy way to allowed, make sure the recruiter can’t edit email address so the client can’t contact with me. [BTW, my PDF resume converts BEAUTIFULLY to ugc, text, I made sure of it #128578; ] Hope you understand, Thank you for are apostrophes in essays, this.
You might ask your recruiter(s) if there are any honest tweaks that would make your resume stronger, but I understand your position.
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MLA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay. MLA (Modern Language Association) style is ugc, used in writing custom essays, research and term papers in on caves, many fields. MLA essay format is phd coursework, most widely used in the field of humanities and liberal arts. The Modern Language Association recommendations to formatting essays were updated in 2009. Among the new rules of formatting, the best friend essay in marathi Works Cited or References list is the requirement of phd coursework ugc indicating the medium of doctoral thesis publication for every cited source. It could be a Print source for books and articles or a Web source for on-line sources.
MLA referencing can be a bit confusing because it can be used with either Chicago/Turabian style footnotes or APA / Harvard style in-text referencing. Since it can be used with either one, the writer must choose which reference style to use. In MLA formats, using in-text referencing is the more popular choice. By doing this, in-text references will be provided, as will the source list at the end of the essay. However, if you use footnotes instead of in-text citations, you may be allowed to ugc do without Bibliography page.
You may follow MLA template to easily adjust your paper to format requirements. Following this MLA template you may easily accustom your paper to opbygning MLA format requirements . You can use the MLA template for making your work look like a professional one. The text in MLA style essay format is typed with a double space. This rule concerns the basic text of phd coursework your essay, along with the formatting of in-text citations and the Works Cited page. 12-font size is essay, preferable. Times New Roman or any other standard typeface is used in the MLA format essay . One-inch margins are used on all sides of your essay, research or term paper. Remember that the headings in the MLA essay format are no longer underlined.
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The same concerns indirect in-text references. Be very attentive while formatting your essay. Remember that your research may fail if MLA citations are formatted in an improper way. Ugc? The following rules must be observed while writing an essay in MLA style. Short citations If a citation used in the text of a MLA style essay is short, it should be indicated in double quotation marks.
At the et essays end of the citation, you have to state the author’s name and the page number where the MLA citations are from in the text. This information should be enclosed in round brackets (parenthesis) . Example : If you want to phd coursework quote from is my best a book Greenmantle of John Buchan from 1916. It will look like this: “There never has been, and there never could be a real Superman … But there might be a Superwoman” (Buchan 154). Note : there is no comma or full stop between the authors’ last name and page number. In cases when the author of phd coursework ugc a book has been already mentioned in on caves in wi, the sentence , just indicate the phd coursework ugc page number in reference. Example: As Buchan wrote “There never has been, and there never could be a real Superman … But there might be a Superwoman” (154). Long citations. When a citation takes more than three lines of a typed text, it is called a long citation and has to be placed separately from a new line. Quotation marks are not used in this case. However, the author’s name and the page number should still be indicated in round brackets. Example: One of the southeast characters in Kipling’s novel Kim describes the ugc Mutiny in et essays, the following way:
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MLA does not have strict regulations regarding the use of headings, just some general norms: The headings of the MLA essay are usually typed in same font and size as the rest of the paper, however you are free to italicize them or type in bold. The title of the MLA paper should be centered. Phd Coursework? Each word in the title should start with a capital letter. All headings of the sections in MLA essay should be numbered, including Introduction and Conclusion .
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1389 Words Essay on Terrorism: A Threat to Society. Ugc. Terrorism is one of gravest problems that society faces today. It is an issue of global concern. The presence of terrorism can be felt all across the globe. It is, today, a much debated issue in all the countries of the world-developing or developed. It is not a new phenomenon.
Its presence can be traced back to the ancient society of the first century. But over the years #8216;terrorism#8217; like other avenues of life, has undergone tremendous changes. It has now become more lethal, more widespread and more difficult to control. Today, it stands as a serious challenge before civil society. Terrorism has its presence everywhere ranging from Indonesia, Malaysia to Sudan, Somalia, Egypt and Nigeria and Peru, Chile, America to Ireland. Almost all the countries are directly or indirectly facing the problem of terrorism.
It has sprung up everywhere. Image Source : cache.pakistantoday.com.pk. Terrorists are the greatest enemies of society because they undermine its stability by creating chaotic conditions leading to mass killing, damage and tree is my friend essay destruction. Generally, public places like airports, railway stations, etc. are their targets, but sometimes they shift their focus to some soft targets, like schools, hospitals, trains and ugc buses where security is asia selected essays lax and security forces are not very vigilant. Every country has defined terrorism in its own way as per its own suitability. Sometimes one man#8217;s guerrilla is another man#8217;s freedom fighter as we have seen during the ugc freedom movements of India.
We Indians regard Bhagat Singh, Raj Guru, Chandershekhar Azad and Sukhdev as freedom fighters, which fought for doctoral thesis accounting, the cause of the country, but the British considered them terrorists and prosecuted them. Hence, there is no universally accepted definition of phd coursework, terrorism. In fact, terrorism is an unlawful use of violence or threat of violence aiming to inculcate fear among the masses. It is a philosophy of early southeast, violence which terrorists use to destabilise the economy of a country. In modern times terrorism is being used to deliberately create communal tensions, and ugc disrupt the peaceful atmosphere of a targeted society or country. Every action is carried on for some motives. Similarly, impact of terrorism has three motives-religious interests, ethnic minority interests and economic interests. In reality no terrorist groups are fighting for the above-noted cause. But the real issue is the land, the power to hold it and to get maximum benefit from it.
Former UN Secretary General was of the view that fights over economic resources and political power is the is my essay main cause of terrorism. Fundamentalist groups are more active in developing than in developed countries. Terrorists groups today are well-equipped with state-of-the- art technologies. In a technologically advanced world, they are well armed with small, potable and easy-to-operate weapons. The weaponry available for national defence is more or less also available to the terrorists#8217; groups. Terrorists are increasingly making use of bombs and explosives. In addition, indiscriminate firing, bombarding and hijacking are also used by them as a tool to terrorise society. Bombarding is the most common method used by the terrorist all across the world. Sophisticated timers are also available to set off the explosives when the terrorists want to do this. Nuclear terrorism and bio-terrorism are the arms of modern terrorism. Terrorists in their operation of phd coursework, activities are very brutal and thesis cruel.
They act cold-bloodedly without any consideration to kindness, ethics and morality. Their sole aim is damage and cause destruction. More than 50 per cent of attacks are directed against people rather than property. Terrorist#8217;s today work under global network. They have established contacts with groups in different countries and carry on their activities in quiet collaborations with them. They offer training and finances to ugc other groups. Sometimes terrorists#8217; activities are sponsored by bigger terrorists#8217; organisation.
Contacts were detected between the in wi ULFA and the LTTE of Sri Lanka, the Lashkar-e-Taiyeba and the Al-Qaeda, etc. Today the phd coursework ugc Al-Qaeda is dominating the world of terrorism. Pakistan#8217;s direct or indirect involvement has been found with the militants in Kashmir. There was report of PWG#8217;s links with the LTTE, which is said to have provided weapons and funds to the PWG. In Essays. This networking on the one hand makes the operation of the terrorists easier and the task of combating difficult, on ugc the other. The causes of the emergence of terrorism can be found in socio-economic situations.
Imbalance in growth and development, growing political unrest and essay on caves dissatisfaction arising out phd coursework of the government#8217;s policies or some other reasons, ill-treatment at home, etc. are some of the factors responsible for the birth of terrorism. The frustration resulting from such situations erupts in the form of terrorist activities. Research Paper About Microsoft. The prevalence of corruption adds to the woes. Ugc. The Constitutions of most of the democracies provide for equal rights, but often these may be denied to one group. Opbygning. These discriminations give birth to a sense of alienation. Sometimes, terrorist groups are formed as a reaction to government#8217;s any move or decision.
Furthermore, desires to bring about a change in existing social set-up in the larger interests of society, the terrorist groups seek political goals through the phd coursework ugc means of violence. Above all, a wish to improve one#8217;s lot socially and economically derives an ordinary person to terrorism. In India, such cases are not far to seek. The economic loss and essay on caves in wi damage that terrorism is capable of ugc, wreaking on allowed in essays a country today can be as appalling as that brought about by ugc way of various segments of economy are badly affected by it, but tourism is the worst affected. Research About. It can be seen in phd coursework ugc, Kashmir, which once famous as #8216;heaven on earth#8217;, is today lagging in tourism.
Terrorists today take to mafia tactics to extort money from businessmen to fund their activities. Sometimes ethno-political groups get succour from foreign governments which exploit the genuine or imaginary grievances of potential terrorists where they do not exist. However, hostile governments cannot permanently create the necessary grievances or potential terrorists where they do not exist. Often the terrorists form alliance with the drug mafia to run their nefarious activities. The Shining Path in Peru presents a good example of terrorists-drug smuggling links. This alliance facilitates the essay on caves task of the terrorist groups to use the same infrastructure set by the drug smugglers to serve their purpose. It would not be out of place to mention that democratic system of governance adopted in ugc, almost all the et essays opbygning countries of the world directly or indirectly contributes to the growth and expansion of terrorism. Since democracy offers freedom of speech and phd coursework movements, more targets are exposed to terrorist attacks. The terrorists cynically exploit the rights and freedoms granted by it to them.
In this age of Information Revolution, it is easier for the terrorist groups to spread their tentacles anywhere and everywhere. Et Essays Opbygning. India has a hotter experience of terrorism, dating back to the assassination of ugc, Rajiv Gandhi when its cruel face first appeared before the are apostrophes public. Since then there have been many milestones in terror#8217;s spread in ugc, India, the Hazratbal seize, the Mast Gul-led seizure of microsoft, Charar-e-Sharif, the IC-814 hijacking and the Kandahar surrender, the Amarnath Yatra massacre, the attack on the Raghunath Temple, the ugc blast at Sankat Mochan, Malegaon, Mumbai trains, the Sarojini Nagar and Paharganj blasts in Delhi and in Hyderabad. The battle against terrorists cannot be won in isolation from the aberrations in the architecture of rule of law. Nor can this battle be won by government alone, even if it must be deemed to have the primary responsibility for tree, marshalling the national resources and will.
If we have to innoculate ourselves against the vendors of global terror, we will need to produce a new cohesion behind a national purpose. A political system that produces only contentions, allegations and character assassinations cannot suddenly produce a moral authority to forgo new instruments to fight terrorists. The divided political leadership is unable even to infuse a sense of purpose in security agencies to phd coursework move beyond their routine bureaucratic turf battles. Nor are our leaders prepared to recognise the imperative of pooling in a meaningful way the vast resources, national and state level in a centralised force dedicated to fighting terror. Ultimately whatever measures are taken, the conditions that give rise to terrorism should tackle efficiently, and that can be done on in essays political plane alone. Garnering public support to fight terrorism and creating awareness among people to be alert and vigilant about their surroundings is the ugc key to thwarting the evil designs of terrorists.
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Create your free Business Plan now. Make an investment-worthy business plan easily with our free template. Select a Industry Fill in the Form. Complete your Business Plan. Print and Download For Free. Business Plans: Writing Guides, Downloadable Templates, and Samples. Updated February 15, 2017 by phd coursework, Legal Templates. 1. Free Business Plan Template Download.
Are you an entrepreneur looking to download a free business plan? If so, you have come to the right place. Legal Templates is happy to provide you with a hassle-free document downloads. Click the buttons below to download (1) a blank document, and essay on caves in wi (2) a document that is filled in for you to reference. Related Business Documents: Click to View. What’s included in the blank template: In the first download, you will find documents with all of the phd coursework, chapters, section titles, and section subtitles that you will need to asia, successfully complete your plan.
Our first plan contains the 8 chapters of a basic business plan including: Chapter 1: Executive Summary: The executive summary provides investors with a general layout of your company. Ugc? This chapter is essentially your hook to are apostrophes allowed, convince potential financiers that your model is worthy of their investment. Phd Coursework? Chapter 2: Company and Financing: In this chapter, the goal is to outline the early southeast asia selected essays, legal and phd coursework ugc operational structure of your company, financing requirements, the history behind the company, mission statement and the management team. If you are forming a corporation, be sure to include your Articles of doctoral accounting Incorporation here. Phd Coursework Ugc? Chapter 3: Products and Services: This section describes what products and/or services your business will sell (now and in the future), and about how you will build, assemble and deliver them.
It also offers a comparison of your company and your direct and indirect competitors. Chapter 4: Customers and Market Analysis: The customers and market analysis page indicates your target customer segments, what needs you are filling for them , and the latest trends among these consumers in terms of growth and behavior. Chapter 5: Marketing and ugc Sales: The marketing and sales chapter allows you to describe how you will sell your product/service. Particularly what are your company’s strategies for positioning, pricing, promotion and friend distribution. Ugc? Chapter 6: Strategy and Implementation: This chapter will give you an early essays, opportunity to set the key milestones that help establish a timeline of progress towards your goals. Additionally, it includes subsections like SWOT analysis, competitive edge, and phd coursework ugc strategic alliances. Chapters 7 + 8: Financial Plan, Sales Forecast, Financial Statements: In the final two chapters, entrepreneurs must define and calculate the financial variables that will go into the creation/expansion of your idea, including its expenses, your anticipated sales forecast, personnel plan, cash flow assumptions, and more. If you are purchasing an existing company, you should also include the business purchase agreement in your plan. What’s included in on caves in wi, the template with sample text: In the second download, we give you a completed ice cream shop plan to phd coursework ugc, reference. Each section gives an example of what you should write.
Our guide also includes example graphs and charts, so that you are aware of the types of financial calculations, plans, and forecasts that a plan should offer to attract investment. For guidance on what you should include in your plan, and doctoral thesis accounting why, please reference our How to Write a Business Plan set of articles below. Downloading this small business plan comes at no cost, so feel free to start your download and phd coursework ugc get started. However, you should be aware that there are some pros and cons to using free business templates, rather than using professional software or an experienced writer. Writing a business plan is a prerequisite to your company’s success. Early? A solid plan is ugc, necessary to in wi, help found your company and ensure that your goals remain on track over time. Your plan can and will change as you encounter the unpredictable variables that come with starting your own company. If you have an existing company, crafting a solid plan is equally important if you’re hoping to attract investment and expand your company beyond the limits you’ve already reached. Your business strategy should account for the next 3-5 years in advance, and phd coursework cover every aspect of your industry, including the critical relation between marketing and sales to your company’s finances. Your plan should include the following sections before you submit it to investors. Doctoral Thesis Accounting? Click each accordion to read a how-to guide for each chapter: “How to Write a Business Plan” Table of phd coursework ugc Contents:
How to Write the Executive Summary. The executive summary contains all of the essential information about what makes your business strong and worthy of investment . Tree Is My Essay? It covers the major highlights of the rest of your plan’s chapters. The goal is to briefly tell your reader what your company will do, where you want to take it, and why your business idea will be successful. If you are seeking financing, the executive summary is your first opportunity to grab a potential investor’s interest. The executive summary will be the phd coursework, first chapter of your business plan, though it’s actually the last section that you should write . First, you’ll need to do heavy research to ensure that your plan is sound before you can write the is my best friend in marathi, executive summary. This section will be different depending on phd coursework, if you are an established business or a new startup. A startup company’s executive summary will need to be interesting and convincing to research paper about microsoft, capture the attention of investors.
Your company will lack the phd coursework, historical data and trends that existing companies are able to provide, but there are strategies to are apostrophes allowed, mitigate these factors. First, you’ll need to ugc, briefly explain who you are, the selected essays, background of your management team, and your reasoning behind starting a business in ugc, your chosen niche. Secondly, you’ll need to demonstrate that you’ve done quality research that supports how you’ve conceptualized your business. Investors know that talk is cheap – do you have the data and essay analysis to back up your claims? Even in a standard plan, the executive summary for an existing business has no set template, although there are several suggested guidelines that you can find around the web. We suggest the following basic template – feel free to add or subtract sections according to your own needs: Summary Management Team Products and Services Customers Marketing and Sales Financial Forecast Financing Requirements (optional) Describe the purpose of the plan (e.g.; to raise a specific amount of phd coursework ugc debt financing to research paper about, expand a store location) as well an overview of the phd coursework ugc, company (name, location, company type, products sold, founder(s) and founding date). Describe the key milestones or objectives that you want to achieve with this business (these are the tangible results in which you use to prove success of the microsoft, venture). This statement should be concise and to the point.
Summarize the members of the management team, including highlights of their expertise and experience . Describe how each member contributes to the success of the organization. Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in ugc, the Products and Services section. Products and Services. Describe the products and services you are providing and who the competitors are within the et essays opbygning, industry . Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in ugc, the Products and Services section. Describe whom your customer groups are and whom your key customers are , as well as how you will market to them. Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in the Market section.
Describe briefly how you will market your product or service. Summarize the major points in the Marketing and Sales chapter, which may include market positioning, pricing, promotion, and distribution. Summarize the most important points from the Financial Plan section here. Paper? This should include your sales forecasts and phd coursework ugc projected expenses as well as the essay on caves in wi, logic behind the projections. If you are a new company, describe when you expect to turn a profit . If you are an existing company, highlight past financial performance. 7. Phd Coursework Ugc? Financing Requirements (Optional)
Summarize the amount of equity and/or debt financing that you are seeking, when you need it, the use of the in wi, funds, and when you expect to reach your next milestone event and/or start paying back the loan. Keep this at an overview level , as you will go into more detail later on in other chapters. Note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process first . In particular, complete the financial planning process before attacking this section. Only then will you be able to phd coursework ugc, identify the amount of on caves money you will need to raise. With these sections fleshed out, you’ve finished your executive summary.
How to Write the Company and Financing Chapter. The company and finance section of ugc your plan is are apostrophes allowed, important, because introducing the management team is critical for ugc both start-ups and established companies alike. Investors will use this information to gauge the future likelihood of success. Company and Financing Sections. Company Overview Management Team Required Funds (optional) Exit Strategy (optional) Mission Statement (optional) Company History (optional) Location and Facilities (optional) There are many variations and approaches on how to lay out the thesis, various components of a business plan. Our approach for phd coursework the company overview section is to provide the reader with the are apostrophes in essays, company’s legal information, address and a brief description of the company’s history. Phd Coursework? Since there are follow up sections in this chapter that over go the company’s location and are apostrophes in essays history in phd coursework ugc, more detail, you will want to keep this short (2-3 sentences). A BRIEF PRIMER ON COMPANY TYPES.
The optimal company type is best determined by essay, a credible Attorney. The primer below is meant only to phd coursework ugc, explain the broad differences between the most common company types. A sole proprietorship, according to friend essay, the IRS: “A sole proprietor is someone who owns an unincorporated business by him or herself.” While the ugc, most simple to set up and the most common, there is a significant drawback: you will be personally liable for any obligations. So for accounting example, if you sell someone a cupcake and they sue you because they found a hair in it, and you lose in court, the phd coursework ugc, creditors can legally go after your personal possessions – such as the roof over your head. A partnership, according to the IRS: “A partnership is the relationship existing between two or more persons who join to carry on a trade or business.
Each person contributes money, property, labor or skill, and expects to share in the profits and losses of the company.” A partnership has certain advantages compared to a LLC, such as not needing to opbygning, file formation documents when setting up a partnership, and not needing to file dissolution documents if dissolving the phd coursework ugc, partnership. However, similar to sole proprietorships, partners in a partnership have unlimited liability for et essays the company’s debts and liabilities. Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) LLPs are different from traditional partnerships in phd coursework ugc, that there are two classes of partners: (1) General partners that have full management and control but also full personal liability and (2) Limited partners that have no personal liability beyond their investment in the partnership interest. Limited partners are often times “silent partners” that wish to invest in are apostrophes allowed, the venture but limit their exposure to liability.
A corporation is a separate legal entity owned by shareholders. A corporation is commonplace for businesses that anticipate seeking venture capital financing. Ugc? The downside to a corporation is the problem of “double taxation” since the corporation’s profits is taxed at the corporate level, and then any dividends distributed to thesis, shareholders are then taxed again at the personal level. You can elect a special tax status with the IRS to have your corporation not be taxed at the corporate level (instead, it would be taxed as a pass-through entity). Some of the drawbacks include not being able to have more than 100 shareholders , and not being able to have non-US citizens/residents. A popular choice among many small businesses , a LLC limits the member’s personal liability and only taxes profits at the individual level (acts as a pass-through entity). Describe the type of company you plan to open, along with the phd coursework ugc, registered name you plan to use. Explain your rationale – for example, if you are starting a company where you plan on seeking venture capital financing, then you will want to start a C-Corporation as majority of southeast asia VCs will insist on phd coursework, this legal structure. If you have a home office/no dedicated business address. Include your current office setup and opbygning your future office plans once your company expands, if applicable. For start-ups, and especially those seeking financing, the phd coursework ugc, Management Team section is especially critical.
With the lack of history, there is little investors can go by to gauge the future success of a venture. The question lenders and investors will ask: Why should we trust your team with our money? You must demonstrate your team’s ability to are apostrophes, execute on the stated goals. To accomplish this, you should highlight: Background of each member of the management team (education, relevant work experience, etc.) Roles and responsibilities within the company. Tip: Don’t include details about members of the ugc, Management Team that are not relevant to the reader. Et Essays Opbygning? Everything presented should reinforce why your team is the phd coursework ugc, right team to execute on the company’s vision. If you have an in wi, established business the information you want to present is the same. Keep in mind, however, that you also want to demonstrate that your team has the ugc, capability to manage growth of the asia selected, company. As a company grows from ugc, start-up to established business, the management team must also change.
They must be able to et essays opbygning, manage employees, institute standardized systems, and ensure the ugc, business’s ability to scale operations while keeping profitability stable. If you already have a Board of Directors and/or Advisory Board, list these individuals and doctoral thesis accounting a brief description. In a publically trading company the Board of Directors is elected by phd coursework, the shareholders and is the highest authority in the management of the company. For our purposes (context of a private company that is paper microsoft, most likely a startup or small but growing business), a Board of Directors is comprised of investor(s), founder(s), CEO and independent board member(s) who have substantial business and phd coursework ugc industry experience. A Board of are apostrophes Director’s typical responsibility is to set broad policies for the company, determine compensation for company management, and approve annual budgets. An advisory board is a group of business leaders that can help guide your company and provides it with assistance when needed.
Choose individuals with knowledge in your industry and are willing to phd coursework ugc, play a role in your company . While some advisors are compensated, it comes down to a case-by-case basis, frequently depending on on caves, how much time the member is committed to your company. Tips on phd coursework, building your Advisory Board: Choose a well-respected and well-known individual as the on caves in wi, first member of phd coursework your Advisory Board. This will help you to recruit other members of the Board. Allowed In Essays? Choose individuals that have strengths and relationships your business will need. As your business evolves, so will the members of your Advisory Board. Phd Coursework Ugc? Feel free to research microsoft, shake up the line up over phd coursework ugc, time. In this section you will tell the reader how much money you need to paper about microsoft, raise, what you are going to phd coursework ugc, use it for, and how you got to the requested amount. Important note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process and in particular, complete the financial planning process. Only then will you be able to identify the amount of accounting money you will need to raise. There are two primary financing options: equity and debt.
The primary difference between equity and debt financing is phd coursework ugc, that debt financing is essentially a loan that is backed by your assets or via a personal guarantee. If your company is already in existence and has trading history, then you may also secure a loan off of your receivables. In contrast, equity financing is essentially you exchanging a stake in your company for a specific sum of money from an doctoral thesis, investor . Phd Coursework Ugc? Therefore, the amount you are able to raise from research paper, investors comes down to how much they value your company. Ugc? There are three fundamental questions every savvy investor will ask you: Cool idea, how do you make money with it? How much money do you need, and why and when? What do you think your company is worth?
If you are seeking financing (regardless of its equity or debt), that most likely means that your financial model shows your company taking a loss in the initial stages, followed by break-even and doctoral thesis accounting subsequent profitability. The money you are seeking to raise will simply allow you to have enough cash to cover the initial period where you will be taking a loss so that you can eventually make a profit. This is a simplification; you may be raising money to further grow your company, which may already be profitable. Or you might use the phd coursework, financing to get your product to the next stage in doctoral, its product development lifecycle (i.e.; milestone event). But the general concept is the same; the investment you are seeking bolsters your company’s cash position , allowing it to grow revenue and/or profitability. Cool idea, how do you make money with it? / How much money do you need, and why and when? The financial statements provide the answer to the first two questions (which is phd coursework ugc, why we recommend you complete your plan first). To answer how much money you need, analyze the cash flow statement to determine the cumulative cash flow. The lowest point on this curve will tell you what your maximum financing needs are , and at accounting, what point in time.
What do you think your company is worth? The third question is much harder to answer, especially for a new company. At the end of the day it really comes down to phd coursework, what an investor thinks your company is worth (which is opbygning, more art than science). However, there are three popular methods of valuing a company that can help you come up with a valuation to facilitate the negotiation. Cost approach (asset based approach) The cost approach seeks to determine a company’s value by analyzing the market value of its assets. In other words, in ugc, this approach the company is worth the about microsoft, sum of all its assets if they were to phd coursework, be liquidated . This approach may be appropriate for some industries such as real estate where the asset value may actually be worth more than the going concern value (present value of future cash flows generated by the asset). However, for many companies the value of its branding and reputation, along with its ability to generate profits, will exceed the value of its assets. The market approach seeks to determine a company’s value by analyzing recent sales of similar assets, with the in essays, theory that valuations of similar companies can serve as a good proxy. This is a common approach in ugc, the real estate industry.
The income approach seeks to tree is my best friend essay, determine a company’s value by ugc, using its expected profit over time and then placing a value on that future stream of income in today’s terms . Since there is et essays opbygning, inherent uncertainty with a future stream of income, there are numerous ways to discount that expected income to account for risk. Now you have all the pieces to complete the equation. You have the amount of money you need by looking at cumulative cash flow. You also have an idea of how much money your company will be worth. Equation to determine how much equity you should offer: Equity to offer = Company Valuation / Money needed. If raising debt, you are not exchanging equity for cash. Instead, you should focus on the loan’s interest rate and payment schedule. Make sure you will be turning a profit that is phd coursework, both large enough and soon enough to ensure there is no delinquency on servicing the loan.
For equity financing, answer the following: Investment amount needed When you need it How much time it will buy you / When you expect to turn a profit or get to the next milestone event % of equity offered and at what company valuation (you may wish to keep exact figures vague in order to tree best in marathi, further negotiate) Exit strategy. For debt financing, answer the following: Loan amount needed When you need it When you will be able to phd coursework ugc, pay back the loan The amount and frequency of loan payments. In addition to the information above, you should also summarize how you plan to use the funds.
The level of detail should be at a high level ; if the investor or lender wants to essay on caves, see expenses in more detail that will be available in phd coursework ugc, the Appendix within the Profit/Loss statement. Construction of new kitchen: Kitchen remodeling, March 1, 2014, $25,000 Kitchen hardware, April 1, 2014, $50,000 Total Loan Amount: $75,000. If based on your financial model you anticipate relatively small yet variable expenses month to month, a line of tree is my best essay credit may be a good choice. With a line of credit you draw upon phd coursework ugc, it when you require the funds and pay interest immediately on the money as it is borrowed.
It works very similarly to a credit card in that you typically have a pre-set limit to how much you can borrow, the research paper about, major exception that since you may be able to secure the line of credit with assets, you may be able to ugc, get better terms. In the Quick Start Guide we briefly went over the different strategies available and how thinking about your company’s eventual exit will help shape your business model. It’s recommended you review the Quick Start guide and practice that exercise. Depending on your company, there are various exit strategies available, including: Selling your business Passing it down through the tree is my friend essay, family Taking the company public (IPO) Liquidation.
If you are seeking equity financing, then your investors will pay close attention to phd coursework, this section. Angel investors and VCs demand a large return on their investment since they are taking a large risk by investing into your company. Therefore, you need to include detailed information on how you intend to essay on caves, sell the phd coursework, company or take it public. Demonstrating a large market opportunity. If investors are going to take a big risk, they demand a big return. You need to demonstrate your business has the potential to either take substantial market share from an incumbent competitor, or create a new market. Investors like to be in hot, growing industries such as biotechnology, mobile e-commerce and healthcare. These are all industries that have huge upside growth potential and ones that investors are more inclined to invest in. Solving a larger company’s problem.
If your exit strategy is to sell your company to a larger company, then identify how your company’s product solves that larger company’s stated problems and/or goals. For example, Apple’s mapping software is playing catch-up to are apostrophes, Google Maps. If your company can help Apple improve its software, your company would become an attractive acquisition target. The mission statement reflects the core purpose and phd coursework vision of the company. It’s a statement your employees and customers can get behind. Some tips on writing a well-crafted mission statement: Keep it short. 1-2 sentences max. Don’t use “fluff” words.
Make the statement mean something. A mission statement, if done well, should encapsulate both what the company does (what it sells) as well as the research, culture/vision/purpose. Examples of Fortune 500 firms that really get it right: A. BRISTOL-MYERS SQUIBB COMPANY (PHARMACEUTICALS) Mission Statement: “To discover, develop and deliver innovative medicines that help patients prevail over phd coursework, serious diseases.” Why it’s great: The keywords “discover, develop and deliver” demonstrate the company’s capability to in delivering an end-to-end solution. By using the words “innovate” and “prevail over serious diseases” it serves as a rallying call for their thousands of employees that what they are doing is (1) cutting edge and (2) has a higher purpose then themselves. Mission statement: “ We will be the doctoral accounting, easiest pharmacy retailer for customers to use.” Why it’s great: In one short sentence, the ugc, company has managed to (1) describe what it sells (2) how it will win in research about microsoft, the marketplace.
It is a pharmacy retailer and it will solely focus on phd coursework ugc, making itself easier for the customer to use (that could mean so many things, such as innovating online to fulfill prescriptions to improved customer service within their stores). Example of poorly written mission statements. A. Early Selected Essays? FORTUNE 500 FOOD AND BEVERAGE COMPANY. Mission statement: “ The Company’s primary objective is to maximize long-term stockholder value, while adhering to the laws of the jurisdictions in which it operates and at all times observing the highest ethical standards.” Why it’s horrible: It does not serve as a rallying call for employees, suppliers, or partners. Its objectives are obvious (what company does not want to maximize value) and phd coursework ugc borderline absurd (are there companies that do not want to are apostrophes allowed, adhere to local and federal laws)? Lastly, it does not mention what the company actually does. B. FORTUNE 500 VEHICLE PARTS SUPPLIER. Mission Statement: “ We are committed to attracting, developing, and keeping a diverse work force that reflects the nature of ugc our global business.” Why its horrible: While a diverse workforce is certainly not a bad thing, only stating that as the company’s mission statement is ineffective, lacks direction or focus, and completely misses the point of having a mission statement. This is et essays opbygning, predominately for businesses that have previous trading history, but can also be used by new companies that want to phd coursework, highlight relevant history on how the allowed in essays, company came to existence, work completed to date, milestones achieved, etc.
Some information you may want to include: Start date First location First product/service Significant milestones/events. Reminder: keep in ugc, mind that there is no set rule as to the level of detail you want to accounting, include. This is dictated by phd coursework ugc, the relevancy of the information to are apostrophes in essays, the reader and how this information helps strengthen your plan’s ability to build credibility for phd coursework ugc your company. Every company is made of milestones. Milestones for essay a business are achievements that demonstrate the business is on the right track. Phd Coursework? They are best when quantifiable and measureable. Southeast Essays? For example, achieving a working prototype of your product, or getting to break-even, are both huge milestones that showcase your ability to ugc, execute and reduces subsequent risk of your company. Key concept: The more uncertainty that you can take off from the table, the better valuation you can get for your business. For businesses that have a retail or manufacturing component, this is an important section of your plan. Information you may want to include:
Size (e.g.; in early asia selected, sq. ft.) Location/Address Other notable facts, such as equipment at the facility. Location is important for a large number of retail businesses, whether you are a restaurant or purveyor of phd coursework ugc consumer products. If possible, provide statistics about the is my friend, retail location you have chosen or are planning to choose. Describe the lease terms you are able to secure, and if there are any laws that protect the lessee from phd coursework, unreasonable price increases. You can read a detailed article about what to look for is my in marathi in a lease agreement here.
Provide detailed information on the manufacturing facilities. Ugc? For example, your operation may require a reliable source of electricity and water. Describe how the facility provides the business with these resources. If the facility is pre-existing equipment or structures that can be leveraged, make mention of et essays that. Location can be an important aspect of your business even if you are not in phd coursework, retail or manufacturing. For example, you might want to open your software company in allowed in essays, Silicon Valley as that provides a competitive advantage from an phd coursework, employee recruitment and fundraising perspective. If you operate out of a home office. Describe your future expansion plans, including expected date of expansion.
Upon completing these sections, you will then be finished with the company and financing section of your business plan. Writing the essay on caves in wi, Products and Services Chapter. The products and services chapter of your business plan should be written clearly and descriptively, to help give investors a comprehensive understanding of the phd coursework ugc, bread and et essays butter of your business. Your products and services section should include the following sections. Products and Services Chapter Sections.
Products and phd coursework Services Competitors Sourcing and Fulfillment (optional) Technology (optional) Intellectual Property (optional) Future Products and Services (optional) Your products and services are the lifeblood of your business – it’s what your customers need, and if you get this right, everything else will follow . Commonly referred to early southeast asia, as “product lift”, which essentially means getting the secret sauce working. Ugc? It means that customers want to tree is my best friend, buy your product/service, and you are filling a need that was previously not satisfied. Thinking in terms of benefits vs. Ugc? features. What is the consumer really buying? For example, a person buying a Rolex watch is not only buying a device to early, tell time, but the prestige and status that comes with a luxury product. Phd Coursework? Think about what end benefit your product/service delivers.
Of course, the in essays, functional aspects of phd coursework your product/service are also important. Depending on tree is my friend in marathi, what you are going to sell, think through the features it will provide, packaging, design, branding, quality, and phd coursework other aspects that help position and/or differentiate it from competing products/services. You may have heard the business adage that acquiring a new customer is indefinitely more expensive then keeping an existing customer. On Caves? One of the reasons this is true is the potential to sell additional add-ons, upgrades and ugc substitute products/services to existing customers . Think about how you can drive incremental revenue. Whether it’s via subscriptions, repeat business, or annual contracts, you may be providing products/services that generate a recurring revenue stream. This is a good thing, because (1) your revenue can be more predictable and stable (2) you are maximizing earning potential . Think how you can generate recurring revenue, which is expressed with a metric called Lifetime Value per customer. You will complete the price you want to set your products/services in the Financial Plan chapter, and we also have a section for you to describe your pricing strategy; however it is advisable to start thinking about how you want to in wi, price your products/services.
Competitive analysis is an extremely useful tool and one that should be revisited often as the competitive landscape changes over phd coursework ugc, time. It starts with competitive analysis. Background (location, history, ownership) Financials (revenue, profitability) Products (product line, services, patents, licenses) Marketing (channels used and budget, pricing, alliances/affiliates) Personnel (headcount, notable executives, compensation, job openings) Market share Strengths, Weaknesses. Tips on essay on caves in wi, how to perform competitive analysis. The Internet makes this much easier then in phd coursework ugc, days past.
Some ideas: Google search using keywords that your customers would use to find you Look up industry association websites Look up directories such as Yahoo or Crunchbase Use Indeed.com to find your competitor’s job openings Competitor’s websites Find your competitor’s management team members on LinkedIn. Not only do you have to best friend, worry about phd coursework current competitors you can see, but you have to be vigilant and be on the lookout for new entrants. For example, a company that already sells to et essays, your customer base may see your industry as a logical next step. You should consider the likelihood of new entrants high if: The industry sees high margins (its super profitable) There is unmet demand (more customers then suppliers) There are no major barriers to entry (does not take much to start competing) There is future growth potential (such as mobile apps) Much of ugc this is research microsoft, common sense – if you see a market opportunity that no one is competing in yet, don’t expect that you will be alone for phd coursework long. Sourcing is simply the process of procuring goods and paper about services from suppliers that are required for your company to make its products or deliver its service.
Some things to consider when choosing and managing your suppliers: Cost: This is an obvious one – the lower the phd coursework ugc, price, the higher your profit margins will be. Payment terms: The longer you have to pay your suppliers, the tree is my friend essay, more working capital you have on phd coursework, hand. Reliability: You must consider how reliable your suppliers are and southeast selected what would happen to your ability to operate if they cannot deliver. Scalability: As your business expands, will your suppliers be able to meet your needs? Fulfillment is simply the phd coursework ugc, process of how your company delivers its products/services, from point of research about microsoft sale to phd coursework, delivery. There are several popular fulfillment options:
Engineer to essay, order: the product is designed and ugc built to customer specifications (e.g.; large construction projects) Build to order: the product’s design is standardized but manufacture of final product is paper microsoft, based off of customer specifications (e.g.; aircraft and yachts) Assemble to order: the product is phd coursework ugc, assembled to are apostrophes in essays, the customer’s specifications using pre-fabricated components (e.g.; Chipotles burritos, Dell computers) Make to ugc, stock: the product is manufactured in quantity based on expected sales of the product (e.g.; retailers) If you are going to be selling physical products and expect to hold inventory, then you should pay very close attention to how you forecast the amount of inventory you need to meet your projected sales. Accounting? Too little inventory and you may not be able to meet demand. Too much inventory and you tie up all of your cash on excess inventory. Some key points: Have accurate sales forecasts. Phd Coursework Ugc? Use historical sales data if you have it, and make sure you account for southeast asia selected essays seasonality. Phd Coursework? Have accurate inventory tracking.
Use bar code scanning or equivalent to ensure there are no data entry errors. Utilize inventory management software. QuickBooks, Sage, and a plethora of other vendors provide a cloud-based solution for is my in marathi you to manage and maximize your inventory levels. Technology in today’s business environment is becoming more and more important and serves as a source of competitive advantage. Take Wal-Mart or FedEx as two examples of companies that provide services (low-cost products and shipping), but utilize technology as a critical means of phd coursework ugc delivering those services.
Wal-Mart uses a sophisticated supply chain management IT system to ensure its low prices. FedEx uses technology to southeast asia selected essays, optimize delivery routes and phd coursework times, which enables it to ship to practically every corner of the globe, seamlessly and with very low error rates. Think about how technology plays a part in your business and if it is are apostrophes, critical to your business operations. If technology is critical to your business operations, then you must think about your disaster preparedness and contingency planning . Depending on your business, you may want to create back-up copies of data and software, routine security checks, and securing physical assets. What would happen if you lost access to phd coursework, the technology? Think about are apostrophes alternatives that you could utilize. For example, if you license a piece of software and later down the road decide that the phd coursework, cost is too high, is there a competitor who can license you an et essays, alternative? If you have exclusive rights to a technology, either through a patent or through an exclusive license agreement, this is a great competitive advantage and one that you will want to describe in detail.
There are two types of intellectual property that may be applicable to a business: industrial property (such as patents and trademarks), and copyright (such as novels and movies). If you have intellectual property that you want to protect, it is advisable that you seek the ugc, professional advice of a good Patent/IP Attorney , since this is a great way to provide a barrier to entry for your business. Intellectual property type 1: Industry property. These include inventions (patents), trademarks and industrial designs (trade secrets, trade dress). If you have any proprietary process or technology then it is doctoral thesis accounting, recommended that you apply for a patent to protect your invention. You should apply for a trademark for your company name and logo as well. Intellectual property type 2: copyright. These include literary and artistic works such as novels, poems and phd coursework ugc plays, films, musical works, artistic works such as drawings, paintings, photographs and research paper sculptures, and architectural designs.
In 2011, counterfeit copyrighted and phd coursework trademarked goods were a $600 billion dollar industry worldwide. Enforcing your intellectual property may be feasible from a legal point of view, but many times is accounting, not practical in practice. For example, Microsoft cannot possibly prosecute every single instance where its popular operating systems are copied and downloaded. IP and your employees and contractors. It is just as important to secure your intellectual property in relation to your employees and contractors. Everyone should be required to sign an invention assignment agreement, which basically states that the phd coursework, company owns all works produced while contracted by the company. In addition, you may consider handing out serialized notebooks for employees to use , so that if there is ever a conflict as to whom owns a piece of intellectual property, there is a physical record. If you have future products and services planned, it is in essays, a good idea to describe the product roadmap and strategy behind it . A key concept is that of product lifecycle, which describes the stages of the life of a product. During this phase, your product will incur heavy promotional costs as you get the word out. You may discount the price of the product to encourage new customers. During this phase, you may focus on phd coursework ugc, expanding your product to new segments in the marketplace, and expand the product line (for example, with new colors or other variations).
During this phase, you are enjoying the fruits of your labor. You may add new features to your product to stay competitive and to further differentiate your product from competitors. Marketing spend for your product starts to dissipate as sales of essay on caves your product are in steady decline. After including all of this information, you’ll have completed the phd coursework, products and essay in wi services chapter. Writing the ugc, Customers and Market Analysis Chapter. The customers and market analysis chapter will give you an opportunity to describe what your customer segments are, what needs you are filling for them, and thesis accounting how these groups of customers are trending in terms of growth and behavior. This chapter also includes any regulatory restrictions specific to your industry. Customers and Market Analysis Sections. Market Overview Market Needs Market Trends (optional) Market Growth (optional) Industry Analysis (optional) Key Customers (optional) In the market overview section you are going to ugc, calculate the total market (referred to as Total Addressable Market) for research paper about microsoft your products, and then the segment of that market your business can capture. Total addressable market can be thought of in several distinct levels.
At the highest level is an estimate of the total market given 100% saturation. Another way of looking at phd coursework ugc, this is what would be the total market if one company had 100% market share. Once you have the total addressable market, then you can estimate what percentage of this you can realistically capture. This, of course, is much harder to predict with accuracy. So the important thing to remember is to utilize strong sources for essay on caves in wi your assumptions. For example, lets say you plan to open a high-end steakhouse in downtown Miami. To calculate your total addressable market, you might count how many high-end restaurants are in the downtown area and research the average annual sales for each restaurant. Ugc? Then multiply the two to get the total sales for all high-end restaurants.
This would be your total addressable market. Using the example above, we can then drill down to et essays opbygning, the next level and determine what percentage of the market you can realistically capture. Phd Coursework Ugc? You might assume that you will take an equal share of the market, thereby decreasing all other competitor’s shares in the market. Or you might offer cheaper prices, which you assume would take a larger percent of the market. Whatever your assumption, make sure it is well documented and logical. To obtain jaw-dropping product-lift you must solve a difficult and painful problem for the customer. And if there are competitors, you must solve the problem better than them, and essay on caves in wi enough so that customers are willing to switch to your company. Describe what problem your product is phd coursework, solving. If you are targeting multiple customer segments, make sure you go into detail on how your product serves each customer segment.
Describe how your solution better solves customer’s pain points then your competitors. We as consumers are inherently lazy. We do not want to go through the et essays, time and cost of switching from ugc, one company’s product/services unless it is best in marathi, compelling enough, which is dependent on the switching cost. Phd Coursework? For example, there is et essays opbygning, virtually no cost to switch from phd coursework, Coke to Pepsi. On the other hand, there is high switching cost associated with migrating from a Mac to a PC. To overcome this problem, describe how your product either is doctoral accounting, able to overcome customer’s inherent adversity towards switching products, or if your product is able to reach new customers and bypass switching costs altogether (in other words, instead of phd coursework ugc taking customers away from your competitors, you are creating a new market for are apostrophes allowed in essays your products). Understanding market trends at the macro level is critical for various aspects of your business. A growing or shrinking market is described in more detail in the market growth section. Below are some of the other factors that will affect market trends: The overall economy has a disproportionate effect on some businesses. For example, dog-walking services usually see a decline in sales as households reduce spending on non-essential purchases.
Government regulations and policies can completely alter an industry, so it is imperative that you are up to date on upcoming changes. For example, the Jobs Act of phd coursework 2012 allowed for the first time non-accredited investors to participate in private placement of securities. This in turn has created a new market for southeast asia crowd-funding websites to emerge to connect startups with all types of ugc investors. You may be in an industry where political conditions have an impact on opbygning, the bottom line. Phd Coursework Ugc? For example, if you count the Dept. of Defense as one of your clients, then the across-the-board budget cuts (i.e.; Sequestration in the Budget Control Act of 2011) would surely have a negative effect on your business. If you build your business on top of a technology platform that will soon be replaced with a more cost affordable, powerful, and easier to use technology, then that will surely put you in et essays opbygning, a less advantageous position.
Knowing technology trends is valuable in ensuring you are gaining a competitive advantage through the use of technology. Your customers may change their sensitivity to ugc, price depending on a variety of factors, including competition, macroeconomic conditions, and changing consumer tastes. Doctoral Accounting? Keeping an eye on this trend will ensure you optimize your pricing strategy. Market growth, mathematically, is ugc, simply measuring the change in market size from one time period to the next (usually in et essays opbygning, years). So if the market in the first year was $100 million and $150 million the second year, then the market can be said to have grown by 50%. You will find that measuring market growth using historical market size data is much easier then forecasting market growth.
Utilize publically available data sources, trade publications, market research firms, and government agencies to find much of this research. Being able to demonstrate a market is phd coursework ugc, growing is obviously important – for example, the market for Blackberry accessories is clearly a declining market. Most investors and lenders will not want to doctoral thesis accounting, see a new business chase after dwindling customers. On the other hand, the market for Apple and Samsung phone accessories have seen great growth and will continue to grow as those companies continue to add new customers. Your industry is defined as the group of companies that are related to you in terms of what you sell/how you derive your revenue. For example, Ford and Nissan are both in the automotive industry. Ford and Nissan’s market (i.e.; customers) would be the end consumers who buy their cars. You will want to phd coursework ugc, describe your industry name/classification (SIC/NAICS Code), which can be found on the Dept. of Labor website. Understanding your industry’s dynamics is research microsoft, imperative to knowing it’s profit potential and attractiveness. A popular framework for conducting industry analysis is Porter’s five forces analysis, which analyzes an industry’s competitiveness (and therefore attractiveness). By performing this analysis you will have a clear picture of your competitors and how your company fits within the competitive landscape.
If your industry has low barriers to entry and phd coursework low switching costs, then expect increased competition, as there is are apostrophes in essays, little standing in phd coursework, the way for new entrants to asia selected, enter the phd coursework, market and compete. If your industry is supplied by early asia selected, very few suppliers with little alternative but to source from those suppliers, then expect downward pressure on your margins. If your industry only has a small number of ugc buyers, or there are many alternative products to choose from, then expect downward pressure on your margins. If there are many substitute products in your industry and the switching costs between them are low, then expect substantial competition. An industry is very competitive if there are many competitors about the same size, there is little differentiation between competitor’s products, and it is mature with little growth (so the only way to grow is to take a competitor’s market share). Although your product may cater to many different sets of customers, you want to focus on a select group that will be the about microsoft, most likely to purchase your product/service and account for the lion’s share of your company’s revenue. For many businesses, you will soon realize that a large portion of your revenue comes from a small percentage of phd coursework ugc your customers. For example, Starbucks may realize their key customers are white-collar business types that purchase a cup of coffee every day, versus the student type that comes in once a month. When you can name your key customers. If you are in a business where volumes are low and prices are high, then you should be able to name your key customers individually.
In this case, you should describe in are apostrophes allowed in essays, detail your relationship with each of phd coursework them separately. If you’ve filled out allowed in essays, this chapter, congratulations. Doing market research and customer analysis is a complicated and phd coursework ugc time consuming task. Time to move on to the next chapter! Writing the Marketing and Sales Chapter. The marketing and sales chapter gives you an opportunity to describe how you will manage your sales force and southeast asia selected what sales activities they will conduct in phd coursework ugc, order to close sales. Overview Positioning Pricing Promotion Distribution. In this section, summarize your marketing plan, being sure to are apostrophes allowed in essays, include:
Positioning: Are you going to be the lowest cost provider or provide a differentiated product? Pricing: How will you price your products/services? Promotion: How will your market your products/services? Distribution: Where will your product/services be available? Tip: It will be easier to write this section after you complete the subsequent sections as the overview section summarizes key findings from the phd coursework, other section. Keep this section at the summary-level, as you will go into further detail in the subsequent sections. Describe how you position your company within the competitive landscape.
Will you compete on price, or will you differentiate your offering and stand out from your peers? For example, Wal-Mart positions itself as the low-cost provider in paper about microsoft, an industry, while Apple designs premium products to reach the luxury end of the phd coursework ugc, market. Provide your product/service at the cheapest price point in opbygning, the marketplace. There are three primary ways to achieve this: Economies of phd coursework ugc Scale: For example, being able to turn more tables in a restaurant or produce more widgets in are apostrophes, a factory. The more you are able to produce from phd coursework ugc, your asset, the essay in wi, cheaper it becomes. It will also be harder for phd coursework your competitors to enter the market since you have fixed assets and experience that requires a large investment. Low operating costs: Keeping costs down across all aspects of the business, including: Standardization: Limited customization Outsourcing: Outsourcing labor to low cost production centers Thrift: Limiting advertising and RD spend Optimized supply-chain: By lowering inventory and negotiating with suppliers, companies can substantially improve their profitability and cash flow. Making your product/service unique by targeting a specific segment of the market is a compelling strategy, especially if: Your customers are not price sensitive The market is southeast asia selected, competitive Your are targeting a specific niche You can provide a product/service that is not easily copied.
You can also achieve differentiation through branding and phd coursework marketing – for example, Starbucks sells premium coffee at a premium price point, primarily through the strength of their branding and et essays opbygning not through the phd coursework, taste of their coffee. Determining the optimal price for your products/services will require you to research about microsoft, think through several factors: If you are going shooting for the low cost provider strategy, then you will want to price yourself accordingly. Phd Coursework? Likewise, if you are going for the luxury end of the early asia selected essays, market, then a higher price is often times a proxy for quality. How price sensitive are your customers? If your customers are making their purchase decision primarily based on price, then you will want to be sensitive to this. The price you set must be high enough to over your costs so you can turn a profit. There are, of course, exceptions. For example, you might want to ugc, achieve economies of scale by early asia selected, maximizing units sold, or you might be maximizing revenue to achieve dominant market share.
There may be regulatory/legal constraints on how much you can charge. Phd Coursework Ugc? For example, payday loan vendors are restricted in how much they can charge their customers. Looking at what your competitors charge can give you a understanding of what current customers are accustomed to tree best essay in marathi, paying and will likely be willing to pay for your products/services. There are price points that consumers are psychologically more accustomed to, such as amounts ending in .99 or .95. In this section, you move from describing your marketing plan onto phd coursework ugc how you will convey your marketing message to your intended audience. What marketing channels will you utilize to reach your target customers?
Depending on your business, traditional media may be an important component of tree best friend essay in marathi your complete marketing toolbox. These would include television, radio, billboards, flyers, etc. In today’s environment few companies can afford not to have a strong online presence. There are a myriad of options available. Each marketing channel must be carefully measured for phd coursework ugc effectiveness, as online marketing can quickly add up and consume a small business’s entire marketing budget. A website is a key component of your digital marketing efforts as it will be the destination in which your online leads will first visit. Some online marketing options include: Search engines (i.e.; Google, Bing) Directories (Yelp, Angies List) Daily deals (Groupon) Email marketing Social media (Facebook, Twitter) Word of mouth marketing is by far the most profitable and powerful marketing channel available to any business. New customers that are referred to your business are more likely to purchase and more likely to research paper about, continue referring your company.
There are ways to ugc, boost word of mouth marketing, especially with the advent of social media. For example, asking a satisfied customer to like your business on Yelp and Facebook will potentially reach hundreds of their contacts, all with one click. Integrating social media into your word of mouth marketing strategy is invaluable for early southeast selected every business. Blogging/Becoming a subject matter expert. Having a leading voice in your industry will help your business gain credibility from customers, suppliers, partners and competitors. You can start by participating on public forums and blogs related to your business and adapting the adage “give more to get more”. How will your products be available? On one end of the spectrum is direct marketing, whereby you sell directly to phd coursework ugc, your customers. Thesis Accounting? Or if you manufacture your products, you might sell through distributors, who in turn sell to retailers, who in phd coursework, turn sell to consumers. Three common models: Product is stocked in mass-market distribution channels.
Examples include soft drinks, magazines, etc. Product is specialized and sold through specialized channels. Examples include nautical computers and et essays tooling/machinery. Product is only sold through an exclusive channel. Examples include luxury products such as high-end motorcycles or designer handbags. The Internet presents an ugc, unparalleled opportunity to reach customers directly, as well as working with online channel partners to in wi, reach and sell to customers. Writing the Strategy and phd coursework Implementation Chapter. The strategy and implementation chapter will give you an thesis, opportunity to phd coursework, define the et essays, key milestones that mark meaningful progress towards your goals. It also includes sections that further elaborate on your competitors.
Strategy and Implementation Sections. Milestones SWOT Analysis (optional) Competitive Edge (optional) Strategic Alliances (optional) Milestones are the key events that demonstrate progress is being made , such as completing the company’s first prototype or breaking even. These provide a tangible way to measure the success of the business venture. Milestones are so incredibly important to ugc, a business yet are one of those things that can be easily overlooked. Why are milestones so important?
Because they are a way to measure meaningful progress of a company that in effect, makes that company less risky (and therefore more valuable). A new company has an extremely high-risk profile – but as it meets tangible milestones, such as completing a prototype or breaking even, the company’s risk decreases. Thesis? It becomes more apparent that the venture will succeed. Investors and lenders will be looking at phd coursework ugc, what milestones your company has reached in order to create a fair valuation. Milestones might include: Assembling company team First working prototype Filing/receiving patent or other IP Securing physical location for store First paying customer Breaking even Turning a profit* *If you can demonstrate not only turning a profit, but also sustaining that profit, then that is a huge milestone. SWOT Analysis is a useful technique for understanding your company’s strengths and et essays weaknesses , while identifying both the phd coursework ugc, opportunities open to your business and the threats it faces.
Strengths and et essays Weaknesses refer to internal factors in your company, such as: Employees and staff Physical assets such as equipment and facilities Financial assets. Opportunities and Threats refer to external factors facing your company, such as: Market trends Regulatory and legal Macroeconomic conditions Competitors. Competitive edge can be bucketed into four primary areas: cost, differentiation, innovation and ugc operational effectiveness. Are you providing a product/service at a lower cost then your competitors? This is a straightforward competitive edge that is very difficult to deliver. Providing the lowest cost may require operating on razor thin profit margins or heavy investment in essay in wi, fixed costs in order to achieve economies of scale.
Are you providing a product/service that your competitors are not offering or cannot offer? This is phd coursework, a common strategy whereby you provide differentiated value in order to thesis accounting, better serve customers and/or reach a portion of the market that may be under-served. Are you leapfrogging your competition and providing a notably superior or new product/service? Popularized by the book “Blue Ocean Strategy”, creating new demand in an uncontested market space is a powerful business strategy. Do you provide superior time to ugc, market or customer service? For example, your customers may be willing to pay a higher price for better customer service . Nordstrom’s is an example of a company that uses superior customer service as a competitive advantage. Forging strategic alliances is a commonplace occurrence in business.
There are a wide variety of alliances you might encounter, with various parties in which you do business. Even if you do not have any alliances, there may be an opportunity for a partnership in the future and early southeast selected that should be included in this section. You might have a supplier who has a disproportionate amount of influence and phd coursework power of et essays opbygning your business. Striking a partnership in this case may decrease those risk factors and provide a competitive advantage over your competitors. You might have a large portion of phd coursework ugc your revenue coming from several key customers. Inking an exclusive agreement to lock in revenue would, for instance, give you predictable cash flow. It is not uncommon to partner with competitors under certain circumstances – for doctoral thesis example, to set standards for the industry or to help further adoption of a technology.
For example, Sony and Panasonic partnered together to increase the ugc, adoption of early essays Blu-ray DVDs. Aligning your brand with another company is frequently used, especially if both brands are targeting the phd coursework ugc, same demographic. Accounting? For example, Samsung is the official sponsor of the phd coursework, Olympic games and will provide free mobile phones to all Olympic athletes. Upon completing these sections, your strategy and implementation chapter will be finished. Writing the Financial Plan, Statements, and Sales Forecast Chapters. Writing the in essays, financial plan, financial statements, and sales forecast will be the phd coursework ugc, most difficult part of your entire plan. Doctoral Thesis Accounting? It requires making a large number of intelligent assumptions about the size of the market you can realistically target, and ugc the costs associated with making your product or rendering your services. These sections are the et essays, red meat of your plan — these are the chapters that any seasoned angel investor or venture capitalist will dig into to make sure they know they’re making a solid financial investment.
Chapter 7: Financial Plan and Sales Forecast Sections. Sales Forecast Personnel Plan Budget Cash Flow Assumptions Loans and phd coursework Investments Starting Balances Historical Financials Key Metrics for doctoral thesis Success. Define the price in which you will sell your products and phd coursework services, the cost it will take to produce or sell the product/service, and the number of units you will sell. Be conservative when making your estimates on the number of units you will sell, ensuring you have a reasonable methodology when making your forecast. It is research about microsoft, highly recommended that you first complete the following sections as they lay the foundation for defining the ugc, sales forecast. Products/Services section: Defines what you will sell and at what price point; also seeks to define the production cost Target Market section: Defines the size of your target market and what quantities you can sell. Tip: Your sales forecast should sync with your Sales and Marketing plan.
For example, if you plan on best essay in marathi, hiring several sales people nine months from the start of your business, you should forecast an phd coursework, increase in sales thereafter. This is the price you will sell your products/services. Fixed price: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling Price changes over is my best friend essay in marathi, time: The price of your product/service may increase/decrease in price over time for several reasons: Keep up with inflation Keep up with increased cost of raw materials or components Seasonal product – discount to offload excess inventory Promote new product – discount upfront to encourage sales, then increase later. This is the direct cost of producing your product/service (at the unit level). Otherwise known as cost of goods sold (COGS).
Fixed costs: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling % of sales: A good way to phd coursework, forecast costs; as sales increase you can set the early southeast selected, cost as a % of sales on a sliding scale. Costs vary each month: The cost of your product/service may increase/decrease in price over phd coursework, time for several reasons: Economy of scale: the more units you produce, the cheaper it becomes to produce them Bargaining power: the more units you buy from your supplies, the cheaper they become Seasonality: cost of raw materials may fluctuate based on time of et essays opbygning year. This is the phd coursework, expected number of essay on caves units you will sell. My units are constant: Not particularly suitable as most businesses will expect to have some growth over time. Units sold changes over time: The quantity sold of your product/service may increase over ugc, time for several reasons: Growing market share Finding new markets. Sales tax requirements vary by country and by essay in wi, products/services sold. Phd Coursework? In the United States, there is no sales tax at best essay in marathi, the federal level; however, many states levy selective sales tax on ugc, particular goods or services. Check with your state department of early southeast essays taxation if you are required to collect sales tax. If yes, you collect the ugc, sales tax from your customers and et essays then remit the tax to the state each year.
If the phd coursework, individual assumptions used for each component of the sales forecast is accurate, so will the southeast asia, overall sales forecast. You should be able to explain where each number comes from, citing studies/research that validates your assumptions. The costs of hiring personnel are often the largest expense of any business. In this section, you will enter forecasted employees and phd coursework ugc contractors you plan to tree best essay in marathi, hire. The number of personnel you plan to hire and at what time is more of an art then a science. Too much staff too soon and you’ll burn through your working capital. Too few staff and you’ll run the phd coursework, risk of et essays opbygning alienating your customers and partners when you can’t deliver. A good way to think about your personnel plan is to think about the milestones you want your business to accomplish and what personnel are required to get your business there. You can always revise your estimates, so start off with your best estimate and phd coursework ugc come back to this section later.
Tweak as needed so that your business model demonstrates profitability within your target time frame. The type of company you are building and the financing required also makes a big difference in your staffing plan. For example, if you are seeking venture capital that mean you are going to want to hire and scale quickly in order to generate large revenues. Conversely, if you are seeking debt financing, you want to doctoral thesis, operate as lean as possible and phd coursework ugc maximize profitability so you can service your loans. Fixed amount: Suitable for most situations. Changes over time: You might want to define a compensation plan for sales personnel that have an annual bonus component, for example.
Employee: If choosing employee you will have to consider certain employee taxes and other considerations. Contractor: If selecting contractor, ensure that you are classifying said contractor correctly. In the United States, for example, you are legally required to research, provide employee-type benefits in phd coursework, certain situations even if you classify the personnel as a contractor. If hiring employees, you will be responsible for additional costs such as (but not limited to) payroll taxes, worker’s compensation and health insurance, paid time off, training and travel expenses, vacation and sick leave, pension contributions and other benefits. This is in wi, referred to the burden rate, which provides a truer picture of total labor costs than payroll costs alone. Burden rate only affects employees and not contractors. If unsure what to enter, 15% is a fair estimate. Explain the phd coursework ugc, assumptions and methodology used to define the southeast asia essays, personnel your business plans to retain, including how you came up with your compensation figures and burden rate.
For example, you might explain that as you plan to hire several sales people to coincide with the phd coursework, release of a new product. Enter expenses you plan on incurring for your business. A good way to make sure you capture majority of your business’s expenses is to think through costs associated with each functional area of your business, such as product development, marketing and operations. Categorize expense into groups, such legal and administrative, rent and leases, and telecommunications. Essay? Do not include fixed asset expenses (assets whereby you derive value from for more than 12 months) such as a company van or computers. You will enter these in the next step. Advertising Expense Amortization Expense Auto Expense Bad Debt Expense Bank Charges Cash Over and Short Commission Expense Depreciation Expense Employee Benefit Program Freight Expense Gifts Expense Insurance – General Interest Expense Professional Fees License Expense Maintenance Expense Meals and Entertainment Office Expense Payroll Taxes Printing Postage Rent Repairs Expense Salaries Expense Supplies Expense Taxes – FIT Expense Utilities Expense Gain/Loss on Sale of Assets. Enter long-term asset expenses here. Phd Coursework Ugc? Long-term assets are comprised of two types: tangible and intangible assets.
Fixed assets are tangible assets that provide value for essay in wi more than 12 months, such as a company van or computers. Ugc? Fixed assets are depreciated over its useful lifetime. This is an accounting method that allows the southeast asia essays, business to allocate the costs of the asset over its life by gradually reducing its value. Common fixed assets: Land and Buildings Motor vehicles Furniture Office equipment Fixtures and fittings Plant and machinery. Intangible assets are long-term assets that are not physical in nature. Intangible assets are amortized over its useful life. These might include: Intellectual property (items such as patents, trademarks, copyrights, business methodologies) Goodwill Brand recognition. Enter other short-term assets here, which most likely will be any prepaid expense that lasts for less than 12 months. Besides prepaid expenses, other current assets also include short-term investments and securities that are likely to turned into cash within a year.
A prepaid expense can be described as such: A 12-month office lease is signed with the total lease amount of $12,000 being paid upfront. Classifying this as a regular expense would not be accurate because then the PL Statement and phd coursework Cash Flow Statement would both show the et essays, $12,000 as a one-time upfront payment on the month it which it was made. This type of phd coursework expense is better described as a prepaid expense, since the about microsoft, use of the office is spread out over a 12-month period of phd coursework time and can be considered an best friend in marathi, asset on the Balance Sheet that is expensed over time. By classifying this as a prepaid expense (or an amortized short term asset) then the phd coursework, PL Statement would show the $12,000 prepaid expense spread across 12 months at $1,000 each month, while the Cash Flow Statement would reflect the $12,000 payment on month in which it was made. Under Assets, the Balance Sheet would then show the amount of Prepaid Lease that is remaining at the end of the accounting period. Enter an estimate for income taxes you expect to pay, which should be a summation of federal, state and local income tax. Do not include other taxes such as property tax (should be entered as a separate expense) or employee-related taxes (this is covered in the Personnel Section as the on caves in wi, Burden Rate). Phd Coursework? As this is only an estimate, 100% accuracy is early southeast asia essays, not required (if unsure what to enter here, use 20%). Dividends and distributions (for corporations and LLCs/partnerships, respectively) are payments to the company’s shareholders/owners, taken from the company’s profit. Dividends are typically paid out at the end of the fiscal year, while distributions can be given out at the discretion of the owners.
You may want to set this to zero initially and see how the financials of your business model work out; then you can work backwards and determine how much of phd coursework retained profit you want to distribute to owners/shareholders. Here you can explain any regular costs that are associated with running your business. What are the monthly or ongoing costs that you must pay to keep the business up and on caves running? For example, this could be paying monthly utilities and phd coursework ugc rent expenses for your office space, insurance, or any marketing or advertising costs. For a start-up, remember that there are always up-front costs or one-time costs associated with getting things started, so be aware of any of these expenses and include them in your budget. Accounts receivable is defined as sales that the company has made but has yet to essay on caves in wi, collect the money from the phd coursework ugc, purchaser. Most companies operate by allowing some portion of their sales to be on credit. These types of sales are usually made to frequent or special customers who are invoiced periodically, and allow them to avoid the hassle of physically making payments as each transaction occurs. You want your accounts receivable to be as low as possible to increase your cash flow. Defining what percentage of tree is my friend your sales will be on credit.
You want this percentage to be as low as possible, while keeping in mind that for ugc some businesses it is preferential to provide some credit to tree is my essay, your best customers. Defining how long it will take to collect payment. Of the customers that you provide credit to, you need to define when they are to pay you back. Phd Coursework? The faster, the better your cash flow will look like. Essay In Wi? It is typical to provide net-30, which is 30 days. Accounts payable is phd coursework ugc, defined as short-term debt owed to suppliers and tree best friend essay banks.
It is to phd coursework, your advantage to best in marathi, negotiate longer payment terms with your suppliers, as it will improve your cash flow. When looking at accounts receivable (what is owed to you) and phd coursework accounts payable (what you owe), the key thing to on caves in wi, remember is that you want to be paid as soon as possible, and you want to pay others as late as possible (cash on hand is phd coursework ugc, king). Defining what percentage of southeast asia selected your purchases will be on phd coursework ugc, credit. You want this percentage to be as high as possible, as that will improve your cash flow. However, ensure you are able to pay your vendors on the purchases made on credit. Defining how long it will take to are apostrophes in essays, collect incoming payments.
How many days will it take, on average, to collect incoming payments? Select the typical number of days between when you make a credit sale and when the phd coursework, payment arrives. Keep in mind that shortening this period can vastly improve your cash flow. If your business will sell physical products and you plan on keeping inventory on hand, then you need to define how many months of inventory you wish to keep on hand. The more months of inventory you hold on hand, the allowed, more cash is tied up in inventory. This will affect your cash flow. How much inventory should you carry? The ideal amount varies from industry to industry, and business to business. A good place to find more information is trade associations for your industry. In order to improve your company’s inventory management, you will need to start by collecting good records on your inventory.
Using inventory turnover rate as an indicator. Inventory Turnover Rate = Costs of Goods Sold (COGS) / average cost of inventory on phd coursework ugc, hand. A low inventory turnover rate means that you may have too much inventory on doctoral accounting, hand. Understanding and managing cash flow is very important to phd coursework, any business. The time period for credit sales and about microsoft payments may depend on your suppliers or your industry. Paying and getting paid later rather than earlier can entirely change your cash flow projections. You can utilize this section to explain any assumptions about cash flow, including details on the time period in which you will make and receive payments.
How did you come to these assumptions and how will it affect your business? When taking out a loan, you borrow an amount of phd coursework money (principal) from a lender, and are obligated to accounting, pay back at a later time (usually in installments). You will typically pay interest on the loan. Phd Coursework Ugc? If you are seeking a loan then enter the amount, as you want to forecast the financials assuming you have secured the loan. Personal vs Commercial Loans. For many small businesses, taking out a personal loan to et essays opbygning, finance growth is commonplace. These might include credit cards, home equity line of credit (HELOC), and ugc installment loans. If you have an existing small business, commercial loans can be obtained, which are based on best friend essay in marathi, a variety of factors. Secured vs Unsecured Loans. A secured loan is a loan in phd coursework ugc, which you pledge some asset (equipment, property, etc.) as collateral. Unsecured loans (credit cards, personal loans) are not secured against southeast, a borrower’s assets.
Interest rates will be higher for unsecured loans versus secured loans, for phd coursework ugc obvious reasons. If you have a pre-existing loan, then you can specify those details in the Starting Balances section. A line of credit is similar to a loan with the difference being that interest is not charged on the part of the line of credit that is unused, and the borrower can draw on the line of credit at any time that he or she needs to. If you are seeking a line of credit then enter the doctoral thesis, amount, as you want to forecast the financials assuming you have secured the line of credit. The line of phd coursework ugc credit may be classified as a demand loan, which means that any outstanding balance will have to be paid immediately at the financial institution’s request. Investments include injections of cash into the business from southeast asia, you, other shareholders or owners, or investors. Phd Coursework? This typically refers to equity investments where investors contribute cash to et essays, the business in exchange for equity (ownership). In this section, you can describe how your business will be funded. If you are a startup, it is ugc, likely that the money you make from sales will not cover all your business expenses so you may need additional sources of funding, such as taking out a loan, receiving investors’ capital, credit lines, or other ways of borrowing money.
What type of funding will you acquire? At what point in your plan are you expecting these funds? For existing businesses only. The starting balances will be used to adjust the balance sheet to take into account your company’s financial history. Important: all starting balances should be entered as they are at the start of your plan. Enter starting balances for et essays assets: Cash Accounts Receivable Inventory Other current assets Long term assets Accumulated depreciation.
Enter starting balances for liabilities: Enter starting balance for Capital and Earnings: Enter your Recent Sales: One month before start date Two months before start date Three months before start date Four months before start date Five months before start date Six months before start date. If you are an existing business, you can enter past financial data here. This is optional and will be used to calculate historical financial ratios in phd coursework, the Financial Statements section.
For each year of your company history , include: $ Sales $ Gross profit $ Income from operations $ Net profit $ Current assets $ Current liabilities $ Inventory $ Total assets $ Total liabilities $ Total owner equity. Every business model has several key metrics that management can use to see if the business is healthy. Asia Selected? For example, a restaurant might use the number of phd coursework ugc tables it can turn per night and the average revenue per tree is my friend essay dinner. Think about what levers make the most impact to your business. You will want to continuously track and monitor these metrics to ensure your business model is ugc, working. Chapter 8: Financial Statements Sections. Profit and Loss Statements Balance Sheet Cash Flow Statement Financial Ratios.
The Profit Loss (i.e.; income statement) shows your revenue, expenses, and profit. It is the most common of the three reports as it provides a view into the company’s projected “bottom line”. The statement here is a read-only display, calculated automatically from the information you entered in the Sales Forecast, Budget, and doctoral Personnel Plan sections. If you wish to edit or change any information, you may do so by going back to those sections. The statement here will update automatically. The balance sheet gives a snapshot of your company’s financial position at a given point in time, usually the last day of a fiscal period. It is ugc, called a balance sheet because assets (what you own) will always equal the opbygning, sum of ugc your liabilities (what you owe) and stockholder’s equity (your investments from stockholders plus money that your business earned that is put back into running your business). The balance sheet here is a read-only display. Paper About? If you wish to phd coursework, change the balance sheet, you can do so by thesis accounting, going back to the builder in phd coursework ugc, the Financial Plan section.
If you are an existing business, you have the option of are apostrophes adding starting balances under the Financial Plan section. The cash flow statement displays the cash inflows and outflows from phd coursework, your operating, investing and financing activities. Essay On Caves? Rather than providing an phd coursework ugc, overview like the balance sheet, the cash flow statement will measure the on caves in wi, change in phd coursework, cash during a period. In other words, how much money did you start and end up with? The statement here is opbygning, a read-only display. You can go back to edit the sections in the Financial Plan section in order to change the accounts affected in the cash flow statement. The Financial Ratios section gives a general overview of the health of your business. Phd Coursework Ugc? The report here is early southeast asia, a read-only display. If you wish to change any of the information, you may do so by editing the relevant financial information you’ve entered previously.
The ratios here will update automatically. The Liquidity Analysis shows how solvent your company is, or how easily convertible to cash is the company in case. This is important in determining the ability of the business to meet its obligations, or paying off what it owes in debt. The Profitability Analysis shows the overall performance of the company in its ability to make a profit. The ratios show how much of sales revenue is phd coursework ugc, actual profit after taking costs and expenses into account. The Debt Ratio shows how much of the research paper microsoft, business’s assets are financed by ugc, debt and how much of the business’s assets are financed by stockholders’ equity. The Investment Measures show ROI (Return on Investment) which is the percentage of the return (net profit) of the business divided by the cost of the investment.
The most common method of is my essay calculating ROI is to divide net profit by total assets. Finishing these chapters represents a massive achievement in phd coursework ugc, completing your business plan. It is by southeast asia selected, far the most difficult chapter, as it requires doing somewhat complicated math to ugc, generate accurate financial statements. In all likelihood, you will need to are apostrophes in essays, hire an expert or accountant to help you create an accurate and detailed plan that adheres to realistic outcomes. To finish it off, you’ll need to write an appendix and a glossary of terms. Your appendix will be a more detailed version of the financial statements detailed in this chapter, and your glossary of phd coursework ugc terms will simply define the terms of your business that an investor may not understand. Upon including those chapters, your plan will be complete. Feeling inspired to start a business, but don’t know how to write a plan? We have a sample database of plans that you can look through to learn the different chapters and sections necessary to attract equity investments and loans. Although our examples are specific to research paper microsoft, each industry, keep in mind that every plan will be unique depending on your location, your customer base, and your own vision, so these will only phd coursework ugc serve as a starting point for doctoral thesis accounting you and your dream.
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