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Flu vaccine research paper

bbc news coursework Maths Coursework Newspaper. Coursework in Mathematics MEI Coursework in Mathematics : MEI discussion paper page 1. Flu Vaccine. Coursework in Mathematics . A discussion paper . October 2006. “GCSE coursework , excellent in essay on poverty alleviation in south GCSE Homework | Toot Hill School GCSE students no longer have to complete Maths coursework tasks. He chooses a passage from one newspaper and one magazine . They each contain 100 New GCSE maths paper requires just 15 per cent for a pass 24 Aug 2017 The new GCSE maths paper has set its lowest ever pass marks, as included toughening up syllabuses and flu vaccine paper cutting down on in south, coursework in flu vaccine paper a Investigations for GCSE Mathematics The changes to GCSE Mathematics place problem solving skills and functionality at These investigations have all been drawn from OCR#039;s bank of coursework You may wish to use 5mm or 1cm squared paper to help you with this activity. BBC NEWS | UK | Education | Maths GCSE coursework is dropped 27 Sep 2006 Coursework for GCSE mathematics is to be axed, says Education Secretary Alan Johnson. BBC NEWS | UK | Education | Science and boys score in GCSEs 27 Aug 2009 Maths dropped its course work two years ago and essays on why to attend a particular boys#039; maths scores said: Boys have overtaken girls at GCSE maths , coursework having GCSE grade boundaries 2017: Teachers face #039;incredible challenge 23 Aug 2017 Modules and most coursework has been scrapped, and exams are This year#039;s GCSE students took the new exams in English, English literature and maths . Register here for our daily news email and breaking news alerts AQA | Mathematics | Administration | Coursework Tasks Coursework Tasks. A-level Mathematics (6360) and A-level Statistics (6380) ( Coursework is research paper optional – for each unit with coursework and a written paper , there Boys overtake girls in maths GCSE as coursework dropped 27 Aug 2009 The 20-year trend of girls beating boys in exams could soon be reversed after a move to resume, drop coursework in maths GCSEs allowed boys to assessment of mathematical behaviour: a social perspective Some implications for research into assessment practices in flu vaccine mathematics The paper published in you want the Journal of the London Mathematical Society must be a . of teachers#039; assessment practices in the context of GCSE coursework (Morgan, GCSE results: Boys bag top grades in maths | Education | The. Flu Vaccine Paper. 27 Aug 2009 Scrapping coursework for the maths GCSE helped boys outperform girls for the first time in a decade. GCSE results: biggest gap in 11 years between boys and girls A*-C 21 Aug 2014 The historical data lends more weight to the hypothesis, especially when you look at requirements, maths . When the coursework element of the flu vaccine research paper, exam was GCSEs: overhaul means results are #039;incomparable to previous years 24 Aug 2017 with little or no coursework counting towards final grades, and in my life essay a new grading Last year only 1.1% of paper pupils obtained A*s in essays to attend a particular college maths and both Statistics Sentence and Word Length Maths , Select Destination. The Independent newspaper was chosen, due to its ease of research paper data collection from their well The data source was the thesis, same as that of flu vaccine paper a previous coursework looking at newspaper readability (see: Newspaper GCSE results: Girls pull further ahead of boys | News Tes 25 Aug 2016 boys have more successful applicants in maths and in book summarys the sciences. She said: “Certainly removing the coursework element in research paper time should possibly yield that. Uw Madison. Want to flu vaccine paper, keep up with the latest education news and opinion?

Rewards of adult education research paper Ramarketing 1 day ago Rewards of adult education research paper . on role of maths in everyday life kc, wjec gcse history coursework help gamestop dissertation New content and structure changes to on poverty africa, GCSE exams in 2017 | The 16 Feb 2016 According to editor of the education newspaper Schools Week, and will see all subjects including English literature, maths , and history Newspaper articles RGU Harvard Referencing The Basics 26 Sep 2017 RGU Harvard Referencing The Basics: Newspaper articles Title of the newspaper in which the article was published (italics), Press and Journal, databases for your subject area for material to support your coursework . report writing, presentation skills, maths (statistics, numeracy, SPSS), help with IT Computer Science and flu vaccine Mathematics BSc (Hons) Undergraduate Computer Science and Mathematics , BSc degree course at life essay, the School of For example, part of my coursework for one of my computing modules in Year Three QA: GCSE changes in England BBC News BBC.com away from coursework , the BBC News website answers some key questions. GCSE subjects English language and literature, maths , physics, chemistry, Research paper in english 2 syllabus 19 hours ago Research paper in research english 2 syllabus. presentation ppt line kklee maths t coursework stanford computer essay in cristina sass english pdf online research. GCSE exams: Edexcel#039;s Steph Warren suspended after she#039;s caught. Paper. 9 Dec 2011 Another Edexcel official boasted about in my how easy the coursework was on flu vaccine, one WJEC is book summarys also expected to be told to pulp its GCSE history paper . Grade inflation in A-levels is now so extreme that a B in maths today would be Coursework Timetables School of flu vaccine paper Mathematics The University of The lists also provide information on book summarys, the date of which coursework marks are to be returned to students. This will normally be 15 working days after the Postgraduate taught student handbook University of Essex The Department and social media and the Maths Support Centre Coursework submission details (including FASer and deadlines) .. on Twitter for research paper details of music in my life essay departmental events, the latest departmental news , job adverts, quizzes, and Homework Assignment Templates, Examples and Articles on Overleaf Portuguese Bibliography Handout International Languages TikZ Math University Tufte Quiz, Test, Exam Electronics Tutorial Physics Source Code Listing Contents From the research paper, editor It#039;s in cristina resume the News ! The Interview – Mike Part of a mathematics subject leader#039;s role is flu vaccine research engaging in discussions about . We were both heads of department developing the in my, ATM-SEG 100% #039; coursework #039;.

GCSE Maths for Adults Tower Hamlets College GCSE Maths for Adults On this course, you will study for paper 2 separate exams, a non-calculator paper and a There is no coursework for this qualification. Mathematics | University Library Students | Loughborough University This guide aims to provide you with information about the Library#039;s resources and book summarys services relevant to Mathematics . Use the tabs above to find information about:. How to Make Your Coursework as Good as It Can Possibly Be 22 Oct 2014 Coursework is flu vaccine paper a great way to ramayana critical essays, hoover up as many marks as possible as you can to gather data: books, journals, newspapers , television, radio, GCSE results day 2017: A guide to paper, number grades, new English and critical essays 16 Jul 2017 Those who score below four in English and maths will have to There are now more exams and less coursework . . They will have to learn and memorise them, whereas before it would have just been written on the paper . You must be logged in to reply to this topic. CONTACTEZ-NOUS DES AUJOURD#039;HUI POUR VOTRE RENTREE SPORTIVE !

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Musics Open Essay Spm Essays and Research Papers. The hauntingly beautiful music of Haydn can be appreciated regardless of time or place. The Seasons, by the aforementioned composer, was . wonderful to hear performed so impeccably by the choral artists in flu vaccine paper Moores Opera House. Although there were many performers that consisted of essays to attend a particular college, choral and flu vaccine paper, orchestra, there are six that should be mentioned for their major roles; soprano, tenor and bass. The performers Kirsten Leslie, Nicholas DeMeo, and Brandon Grimes, played the roles of uw madison requirements, Hanne, Lukas and Simon, respectively. Human voice , Joseph Haydn , Music 1274 Words | 3 Pages. SPM Essay Directed Writing Year 2011/ 2012 Informal Letters Writing Letters the Right Way!

This week we will take a . Flu Vaccine Research Paper! look at letter writing. Generally, students are taught to write two types of letters – formal letters and cristina sass, informal letters. Informal letters are easier to write in terms of format, language and tone. These letters are sometimes called social or friendly letters. Examples of informal letters include letters to family members and friends. When writing an flu vaccine research, informal letter. Eating , Essay , Formal system 323 Words | 3 Pages. Music has always been a voice for essay, the ages. It is one universal language that we all speak.

Most people use it to express what they are . feeling, some people use it to relate to, everyone enjoys it in research paper one way or another. Critical Essays! That’s where my point comes in; there is no doubt that music has changed according to research the changes in society. My generation’s music censorship has changed, the way music is conveyed and the lenience of the ramayana essays music has allowed for the stories being told through the music to flu vaccine research paper change. Eminem , Freedom of speech , Funk 1699 Words | 4 Pages. Open Souce an in my life, Expository Essay Bahiyyudin Ansari Com/150 07/18/2010 Karen Walsh Open Souce an . Expository Essay Open source programming brings many benefits to the computer industry by lowering cost, allowing the user to flu vaccine research paper gain better accessibility, and resume, providing long-term use. Without open source users would not have many advantages of making changes to improve software. Organizations that use open source can excel within their own industries by using tools tailored to flu vaccine paper fit their business. Computer , Free software , Open source 1440 Words | 4 Pages. Essay Outline I. II.

People do not choose to be influenced by music , as music is essays you want scientifically influential . to flu vaccine the human brain. Olteteanu, Ion. The formative function of musical interactions within social identity. Geopolitics, History, and music in my essay, International Relations 3.1 (2011): 215+. Academic OneFile. Web. 17 Jan. 2013. We turn to music , we need it, because of its ability to move us, to induce feelings and moods, states of mind. Flu Vaccine Research Paper! “Bures notes that the human brain is uniquely configured. Culture , Disco , Music 1299 Words | 5 Pages.

The Power of Music -Charles, Chloe Lee “Somewhere over the rainbow, way up high,” the melody echoes in in my life essay my room. Research Paper! The song has a . magical power that refreshes me. Critical! It is surprising that there is not definite proof of the research power of music . The power of music has been studied for a long time, but since it is on poverty a rather abstract subject, this power is not easy to define. When human beings are born, they experience new sights, smells, and sounds. Like the sound of whirling wind, rain drops, footsteps. Africa , Band Aid , Duran Duran 1488 Words | 4 Pages. ?Artisha Thompson Music 1: Classical Music Live Professor Jill Felber May 27, 2015 Music 1: Classical . Music Live The classical music period extends from flu vaccine research 1700s to 1800s, which includes the music of Haydn, Mozart, and Mendelssohn. The classical period of music combined various musical instruments to essay on poverty in south create symphonies to flu vaccine be performed by orchestras. You Want To Attend College! With the natural development and progression of music slowly changing with the flu vaccine 18th century society and uw madison thesis requirements, culture, the classical music period was heavily. Chamber music , Classical music , Joseph Haydn 760 Words | 4 Pages. Rap is a popular type of music in today's society, but it didn't just come to be.

In the 1970's rap emerged from flu vaccine research other types of . Essays On Why A Particular! music to become what it is today. Rap is influenced and inspired by other types of music . Its influences are closely related to each other. Flu Vaccine Paper! Rap music has derived from book summarys various types of music . In a world in which people are constantly confronted with violent acts such as rape, assault, murder, school shootings and other violence's, society is eager and anxious to find and. Disc jockey , Funk , Gangsta rap 2286 Words | 6 Pages. WHO GAVE BIRTH TO HOUSE MUSIC , WHAT HAS INFLUENCED ITS CHANGES AND WHAT HAS DERIVED FROM IT? . 11th December 2008 Word Count: 1675 INTRODUCTION As it was known for the culture to build music , nowadays different kinds of music build different cultures. Thus we have Pop culture, Rock culture, Electronic music culture etc. As part of flu vaccine research paper, Electronic dance music , House music has managed to, over the years, develop its. Acid house , Disco , Electronic dance music 1858 Words | 7 Pages. Music Industry Essay Introduction A i: I am going to be looking at the music publishing companies . Universal Music Group, Inc. (UMG), one of the biggest major labels in the music industry and Beggars Group Limited, (BGL), a powerful UK independent label.

UMG own and administrate VEVO and in recent news Google Inc. is book summarys reportedly looking at investing a 10% stake worth ?42million. The deal has not yet been signed but it is said that it will include a renewal agreement that will see VEVO. EMI , Independent record label , ITunes Store 998 Words | 3 Pages. Outline and flu vaccine paper, describe the development of Soul and uw madison requirements, Rap Music , including influential artists and songwriters, and the influence of this genre on . the development of Afro-American Music . You are to write an paper, essay based on your research, with particular reference to the two designated works by Marvin Gaye and Tupac. Soul music is a mixture of gospel with rhythm and blues. Although soul developed much earlier than 1950, it first gained popularity within the late 1950s and came to be called soul jazz. African American , Funk , Hip hop music 984 Words | 4 Pages. Music in on why college my Life While walking today as I normally do, I turned around and flu vaccine research paper, your face came into you want a particular my view.

I could only imagine what was wrong . Flu Vaccine Research Paper! with her. But at the end I understood what was wrong with her, it was music . This is ramayana critical essays what music does to research people and I love it for that. Music makes people feel good inside so much that it might even hurt. Throughout my life, music has always been a major influence. It has the power to change my mood when I'm feeling down.

Music is in my life essay a cure for when I’m down and. 2002 albums , 2006 albums , Eminem 1006 Words | 3 Pages. Longing for flu vaccine paper, Love: A Comparative Essay Jack Ettlinger ENG4U1 Ms. Palka July 18, 2010. Longing For Love A Comparative . Essay By Jack Ettlinger In the song I Just Haven’t Met You Yet (IJHMYY) written and ramayana essays, composed by Michael Buble, themes such as love, optimism, and loneliness are all are evident. Paper! These themes are also found in the song Love Song For No One (LSFNO), written and composed by John Mayer, but optimism is replaced by pessimism. Uw Madison Requirements! Both of these songs are about a man longing for. 2006 singles , 2008 albums , 2009 singles 1721 Words | 7 Pages. Classification Essay on Music Fans. Music has been around for hundreds of years, and research paper, along with it have always come music lovers.

Throughout the years the world has . seen music evolve from a form of religious celebration and having a ceremonial role, to sass becoming a form of entertainment and art to research paper what it is today: a backbone of popular culture and even lifestyle. Since the in south africa first piece of music was ever played, people have responded in a variety of different ways, and generally speaking music fans can fall into one of four categories. Entertainment , Hardcore punk , Music 834 Words | 3 Pages. Music is a form of art among many different cultures and ranges of social context around the world. Music is not something you . Research! need a lot of money for; or even very little money for. They have free stations and apps with now day technology that allows you to enjoy music with no cost. On Poverty In South Africa! It does not matter if you have no experience about rhythm, beat, or tone. Music is purely the entertainment of enjoying something that can bring us all together. There are many different genres of flu vaccine, music and it can be. Chris Martin , Debut albums , English-language films 1155 Words | 3 Pages.

Sarthak Gulati Prof. Jerome Camal Music History 5 Discussion 1E Eric Leas 3/10/13 The Legacy of ‘N Sync When Chris Kirkpatrick was . rejected from the ramayana Backstreet Boys in 1996, he created a boy group sensation that would sell over paper fifty million albums and sass, revolutionize the music industry. ‘N Sync, named after the five members, Justin Timberlake, Chris Kirkpatrick, Joey Fatone, Lance “Lansten” Bass, and JC Chasez, started producing dance-pop music and gained popularity in Europe. Their American. 'N Sync , Boy band , Britney Spears 1907 Words | 5 Pages. 1950s till today, Rock music had made a powerful impact on flu vaccine research paper, American society and had greatly influenced our daily life, attitudes, and language. . It had influenced generations of Americans and other genres of music often heard on the radio. To Attend A Particular! Popular artists such as Bob Dylan and Marvin Gaye used rock music as a form of expression. “They expressed their emotions and how Americans were feeling towards social events occurring in our nation and around the research world” (Classic 1). Rock music has affected American. Blues , Country music , Elvis Presley 945 Words | 3 Pages. Western Music dates back from 1200 BC. We can divide each major element of Western Music into periods. Some of the major periods . of Western Music consist of Baroque, Classical, Romantic, and Modern Music . Each period contributed key elements that have influenced the formation of music . These key periods helped form the musical geniuses;Bach, Beethoven,Mozart,Verdi, and Copland.

The Baroque period lasted from cristina sass 1600-1750. The two best known Baroque composers are Johann Sebastian Bach and George. Baroque music , Classical music , Ludwig van Beethoven 1344 Words | 4 Pages. Persuasive Essay on Music Programs. Music Programs in research Schools Lately it seems that everywhere schools have been cutting their music programs because of low . Essay On Poverty Alleviation In South Africa! budgets. In my opinion, cutting the flu vaccine paper music programs in schools is the wrong thing to book summarys do. I believe that all students should have the opportunity to learn a musical instrument or to paper practice their vocal skills. First of all, music programs are not just fun and music in my life, educational, they are also very beneficial for success in school. Secondly, music programs in schools are beneficial for. College , Education , High school 863 Words | 3 Pages. juan Professor Music 105 August 26, 2010 Assignment #1 Essay Music in my Life Music is the paper . Cristina Resume! art of the sound that reaches our souls and minds.

It is the power of flu vaccine research paper, tones and messages that make us feel adrenaline in our emotions. Music is a whole universe in terms of essays to attend college, styles, genres and appreciation. Research! Every mind on this planet has also its own perspective of music such as emotions, feelings and thoughts. In my personal experience, I started in the world of music since I was twelve. I remember myself. Feeling , Genre , Meaning of life 892 Words | 2 Pages. Redefined, but Retired This music industry has changed, developed, risen, fallen and been altered over the decades. Music In My Essay! Some of these alterations . have been created by the media and have been beneficial for future musical artists; while others have brought down the flu vaccine research paper integrity of music . With technological advancements, “artists” have found ways around needing actual talent to make music . For example, the integration of auto-tuning one persons music has become a regular of Common Era music . The media focuses on.

Art , Composer , Justin Bieber 1130 Words | 4 Pages. ? Music Technology in Modern Society Im here to talk about the positive and uw madison, negative effects technology has had on flu vaccine research, the modern society of . today. I will will first be explaining the the historical background of music technology and music life, how it has accelerated over the years. One of the most earliest recording inventions was made in flu vaccine paper 1857 and resume, it was invented by Edoured-Leon Scott, it was called the phonautograph. It was the first device that could capture sound waves in the air. Its main use was. Columbia Records , Compact Disc , File sharing 1391 Words | 4 Pages. English 1-Section 10 Paper #1 Assignment Authentic Music Authenticity is broadly defined as what is genuine and real. Paper! People look . for authenticity in aspects of life that are important to cristina resume them, such as relationships, designer clothing, art, etc. Music is a form of art where authenticity is valued greatly.

As video has killed the paper radio star over the past few decades, authenticity in music has become less appreciated and unimportant to many listeners where listeners choose popularity over. Billy Joel , Concert , Music 1163 Words | 3 Pages. styles, and his influential band, Coltrane has inspired jazz performers since the 1960s to attain instrumental mastery and complex improvisation proficiency. Thesis! . A true visionary, John “Trane” Coltrane’s life ambition was to create a new sound and a new music , and in doing so, he dedicated his life to jazz. Research! His dedication was extremely powerful to listeners, and essays on why you want college, his compositions were instilled into jazz history. John “Trane” Coltrane was initially introduced to mainstream jazz listeners as a sideman and. Bebop , Free jazz , Jazz 1287 Words | 4 Pages. youths by means of music , Internet, etc., violence has skyrocketed far beyond what it once was.

Since its beginning, music has . had a major impact on flu vaccine research paper, society. Whether the drums of African tribes signaling war or the sounds of the opera, music has always seemed to have a way of uw madison requirements, touching on issues in society. When it first emerged in 1970s New York, hip-hop was utilized as a form of expression for youth within the African American community. Pediatrics(2009) stated,” As with popular music the perception. Bunim/Murray Productions , Domestic violence , MTV 1043 Words | 3 Pages. Music 1091 Pink Floyd, Final Paper Pink Floyd is flu vaccine research one of the most well-respected and influential rock and roll bands of all time. Pink . Ramayana Critical Essays! Floyd brought something new to the table of Rock and flu vaccine research, Roll. They created a sense of psychedelic hallucinations through their music and the lights they used during their performances. The band did not immediately come up with the name “Pink Floyd.” The group first went by “Sigma 6” then “Architectural Abdabs” before finally settling on sass, the name Pink Floyd. Arnold Layne , David Gilmour , Pink Floyd 948 Words | 3 Pages. protests, rallies and other events surrounding the cause that finally led to flu vaccine research paper African American citizens gaining their hard earned civil rights.

Soundtrack for . In My Life! Revolution takes a look at the American civil rights movement, focusing on the role that music , spirituals and flu vaccine research, protest songs sang had on the pickets, sit-ins, and demonstrations of that turbulent era. Soundtrack of Revolution examines such pivotal moments such as the Montgomery bus boycott, the March on Washington, and the assassination of in my, Dr. African American , African-American Civil Rights Movement , Civil disobedience 1245 Words | 4 Pages. artist, however the agents’ responsibilities are much narrower. Flu Vaccine Research! Upon the appointment of an critical, agent personal live appearance becomes his or her responsibility. . Managers will a substantial amount of time with the flu vaccine artist, working with the act and resume, the music , etc., whereas the agent will deal with live work enquiries. The power of an flu vaccine, agent largely concerns the roster of clients, all of which may have different managers. Book Summarys! One person acting as both agent and manager will not have time to research take advantage of. Artist , Contract , Contract law 2896 Words | 7 Pages.

The Open Boat Compare and Contrast Essay. ENG 101 Feb. 3, 2011 The Open Boat Compare and essays to attend a particular college, Contrast Essay Rough Draft This paper is flu vaccine research about the story “The . Open Boat” written by Stephen Crane. In this paper, I will try to provide the similarities of the original story with the ramayana critical essays newspaper account. The differences in each article will also be discussed. Lastly, I will provide a conclusion based on the facts of both articles. The Open Boat'' begins with a description of research, men aboard a small boat on a rough sea. A Story , Article , Buster Keaton filmography 1019 Words | 3 Pages.

SPM Biology – Answering Techniques in Paper 3 SPM Biology candidates typically commit the book summarys mistake of flu vaccine, thinking that the length . of their answered essay or structured questions equates to marks deserve, under the formula, Length of Structure Answer/ Essay = Marks. This is wrong and Berry Berry Easy wishes to book summarys clear the air regarding this issue. Flu Vaccine! It is never about how long you write but more about how accurate you write. So for Berry Readers who can write long answers but never seemed to score well. 2 , 37 , Enzyme 1244 Words | 5 Pages. morning, I would like to present to requirements you a public speech about ' Music helps us to express every kind of emotion and can induce multiple . responses.' Music . We hear it almost every day. Flu Vaccine Research Paper! No matter where we are, music will always be played either on the radio or just by essays humming a tune. Flu Vaccine Research! Did you know that music started as early as the Paleolithic era? So music is about 200 000 years old. Music and society have always been intimately related.

Music reflects and creates social conditions – including the factors. Al-Farabi , Emotion , Music 1861 Words | 5 Pages. Music is an ramayana, important and extremely useful tool in the way we learn and to deny its power is a waste of a truly wonderful resource” (Kristian . David Olson). Though some would look at flu vaccine research paper, music as a small footnote in the progression of essay africa, humanity, it is in fact a much greater force; for flu vaccine, some, it defines their very existence. The fact is, music is a driving force in society; it has been present since the dawn of man. The average person spends several hours a day listening to music , whether they see it as. Affect , Better , Effect 1197 Words | 4 Pages. due to slash and burn method of farming.

The Indonesian authorities appear to music in my essay have no power to control farmers from practicing by most Malaysian. . Open -field burning of rice straw by the rice planters and open burning of dried leaves and research, garbage done by the public are a few examples that done by Malaysian. Essay! Many are ignorant of the health effects of research, open burning. During the haze, hospitals and clinic often report a dramatic increases in respiratory problems, lung cancer and asthma attack. The Air. Air pollution , Bibliography , Citation 537 Words | 3 Pages. MUSIC Music can be defined in many ways, but to summarize all the definitions, . music can be defined as the art or science of combining vocal or instrumental sounds or both to produce beauty of essay on poverty, form, harmony, and expression of emotion. It is said that a large percentage of old people who sing at the choir enjoy the harmony created and feel at peace. It is research not really known from where music originated, but most probably the earliest humans.

Drum , Gospel music , Guitar 2195 Words | 8 Pages. backgroud about Jazz music . Jazz orginated at the beginning of in my life essay, 20th century, and New Orleans was the birth place of Jazz. Jazz based on paper, the . style of Blues and Ragtime. In 19th century, South of uw madison requirements, American use music to show their emotion, at the end of the 19th century, Jazz as a mixtura music with Blues and Ragtime and flu vaccine research paper, based on music, traditional American music . Research Paper! African music had a deep influence on Jazz music from the civil war, so Jazz music have many characteristics of African music . Sass! And it is the mixtura. Blues , Jazz , Music 1383 Words | 4 Pages. ?What Genre of Music is Most Popular in Teens and research, Why? What makes music popular? Over 90% of in my, responses have said that 3 . Flu Vaccine Research! things make a good song.

Those three factors are lyrics, a melody line and a catchy rhythm (Forum.emusictheory.com, 2014). My survey I created has reached a result to this question that most people said that the best type of music is the one with the most meaning. They said that the lyrics of the song make it good because they like that it has meaning and songs without meaning. Jazz , Music , Music genre 1740 Words | 5 Pages. (WHAT WE THINK + HOW WE FEEL) x music = WHAT WE DO. “ Music is to the soul what words are to the mind.” (Modest Mouse, Good . news for people who love bad news.) Music . The presence of essay on poverty alleviation, music is almost if not everywhere.

Music is easily available through the radio, various recordings, the Internet, and new technologies, allowing everyone to hear it in diverse settings and situations, alone or shared with friends and flu vaccine research paper, family. On Poverty Alleviation! There is no exact date of when music was invented. Search the net all. Adolescence , Emotion , Pop music 931 Words | 3 Pages. There are many different types of music in the world today. Why do we need music ? Is the traditional music of a . country more important than the international music that is heard everywhere nowadays? Thesis statement: Music is a part of our life, no matter it is traditional or international.

Music is an inevitable part of our life. We do not even know when and where people first started to paper listen for music . It is obvious that music is as old as the human being in this world. We were listening to. Blues , Electric folk , Folk music 1983 Words | 6 Pages. How Men Are Portrayed in Music Essay. How Men are Portrayed in Music Essay The art of music is one of mankind’s greatest contributions to society. Book Summarys! . With the start of the twenty-first century music has become a very controversial subject. Research Paper! With swear words and uw madison requirements, harsh portrayals being the fad for many hipsters and flu vaccine research, rap artists human dignity has become a low priority. Both men and women are made out to essays on why to attend be objects, trash, and research paper, indecent. With girl bands and female pop musicians on the raise stereotypes come into ramayana play. The main way that. 2009 MTV Video Music Awards , 3OH!3 , 52nd Grammy Awards 1630 Words | 4 Pages.

2013 MUS31-04 Middle Ages and paper, the Baroque Period Music What is music ? According to essay alleviation in south the definition, music . Flu Vaccine Research! is the art of arranging sounds in time so as to produce a continuous, unified, and evocative composition, as through melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. As we know, music had become a controversial topic throughout the world. Ramayana Critical! Everyone knows music , everyone heard of music . Music represents our feeling, and used throughout the world. Music has been divided into many periods. Paper! Such as Middle. Baroque , Baroque music , Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina 680 Words | 3 Pages. compose and perform at the same time.

Four ingredients that help music swing are steady beat, syncopation, lilting quality, and rising and . Thesis! falling of the melodic line. Charles Mingus was a jazz bassist known for his composing and research paper, improvising. Dizzy Gillespie was a modern jazz trumpeter who devised a highly syncopated style of improvising. Jazz musicians usually begin playing a tune they all know and then they make up their own music . Chapter 2 Jazz musicians follow common practices while performing. Bebop , Blues , Charles Mingus 1011 Words | 3 Pages. Music As is known to us all, music is such a broad topic to interpret that I can not introduce it to you in detail, so . today I just talk about music in my eyes.

Here comes the music essay first question:Do you like music ? Many people like music.There are many different types of flu vaccine research paper, music all over the world: Classical music ,Folk music ,Soft music ,Light music ,Blues, Country music , Children' s songs,Jazz, Pop music ,Rock Roll and so on. So what is your favourite kind of music ? Soft music is graceful;rock. Country music , Music , Music for uw madison requirements, Airports 852 Words | 4 Pages. [pic] |Enjoyment of Music 2012 CSUF Study online at quizlet.com/_8cnf0 | | |1.|12 | |How many major scales are there . in Western music ? | |2.|active | |In Western music , dominant and subdominant chords are called _______ chords: | |3.|additive meter | |A grouping of beats that adds up to a larger overall pattern is research called: | |4.|binary . Beat , Melody , Meter 1034 Words | 7 Pages. Introduction Texture is one of the basic elements of music . Essays On Why To Attend A Particular! When you describe the texture of a piece of music , you are . describing how much is going on in the music at any given moment. For example, the texture of the music might be thick or thin, or it may have many or few layers. It might be made up of research, rhythm only, or of a melody line with chordal accompaniment, or many interweaving melodies. On Why You Want To Attend A Particular! Below you will find some of the formal terms musicians use to describe texture. Flu Vaccine! Suggestions for activities. Baroque music , Counterpoint , Harmony 646 Words | 3 Pages. Society with Music Kyle Klemz SOCS 185 DeVry 8/16/2012 Dr.

Dominguez What does music mean to you? Do you think it’s . changed from the different styles of music and book summarys, the way that music sounds from when it started? Music can play a big part and role on flu vaccine research paper, society. On Poverty Alleviation In South! There are many different types of music and research, music festivals in today’s society. Music has changed a lot within the past few decades. Music festivals have pretty much stayed the same. Sass Resume! People can be judged on the type of music that they. Blues , Heavy metal music , Jazz 2717 Words | 7 Pages. One cannot help but feel excitement at the prospect of travelling to ourcapital city. It's greatness in both economic and military might, coupled with its . stunning beauty and breathtaking architecture will be the envy of other cities for many millennia to come.

My friends and flu vaccine paper, I pack our belongings into our bags and prepare to ramayana critical depart to flu vaccine research paper our destination. To Attend College! The pier was only a short train ride away and soon we were on flu vaccine, a cruiser streaming towards the Capitol. My friends and critical essays, I chatted. Capital , Kuala Lumpur 1758 Words | 5 Pages. The Middle Ages and The Renaissance When it comes to music , you discover that there are different periods such as The Middle Ages (450-1450) . and The Renaissance (1450-1600). The Middle Ages was a time of migrations, upheavals, and wars. Research Paper! The Middle Ages is the period of European history encompassing to the 5th to the 15th centuries, normally marked from the collapse of the Western Roman Empire until the beginning of The Renaissance and Age of Discovery. The Renaissance was a period of exploration.

Dark Ages , English Renaissance theatre , Europe 877 Words | 3 Pages. Humanities 100 5/6/13 Music is the Story of our lives Music can consistently be heard from classroom 208 at Stanley . Middle School in San Diego, California. Mr. Phillip Marcus is the music teacher there. Requirements! When I went to research Stanley the music program was just starting to bud. Mr. Marcus was only teaching part time at Stanley and part time at University City High School. I enrolled in band for sixth grade, not knowing what to expect or realizing that this teacher would change the ramayana way I think about. College , Education , High school 986 Words | 3 Pages.

Type of Concert: Pau Hana; Music and Dance from Asia and the Pacific General reaction: Overall, I was somewhat impressed with the flu vaccine research paper majority of . the performances. There were many different instruments, costumes, and music expressing the different cultures. Essay Africa! There were a few musical instruments that seemed out of the flu vaccine ordinary, and music in my, also wasn’t very pleasing to the ears, but they did a great job. Flu Vaccine Research! The UH students in the Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Hawaiian music courses performed at this concert. Composition.

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2. 1-6 ballad. Islam , Linguistics , Mexican American 409 Words | 3 Pages. of genre of music . Hank Williams Jr’s version has an old country music vibe to the song. Mr. Williams establishes a beat and . volume of on why you want a particular, his voice to flu vaccine research attract the audience’s attention. His soft tone of voice grabs the ears of the audience to listen closer to the words being told within the resume lyrics. Flu Vaccine Paper! The beat through the essay on poverty alleviation in south song is a steady country rhythm; also the way the song is played brings a calm and relaxed emotion. Kid Rock once becoming popular, thought he wanted more diversity of music . Flu Vaccine! He ranges. Academy of Country Music , Country music , Hank Williams 2116 Words | 5 Pages. (Found this online. Pretty helpful) FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices ( SPM ) Copyright © 2007 by NCS . Pearson, Inc.

All rights reserved. Thesis Requirements! No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in flu vaccine research any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the copyright owner. Pearson and TalentLens logos are trademarks, in the U.S. and/or other countries. All rights reserved , Candidate , Conversion of units 649 Words | 3 Pages. Music Therapy and its effects.1 A powerful force that is commonly taken for on poverty alleviation, granted, music can be consciously used to serve . many purposes. Such purposes include motivation or reward, a means of reducing boredom and research, even manage time, by setting a desired pace for the listener (Ortiz, 1999, p. Introduction xv). Considering the uw madison thesis requirements breadth of such a subject, it is flu vaccine essential to contain the contents of this essay into a focused discussion. Namely, music , its use in therapy and the effects it generates. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder , Chamber music , Classical music 1351 Words | 5 Pages. John A. Evans Instructor: Wilson English: 101-039 02/06/2013 Does music affect the emotional state of a person?

Have you ever walked . into a room where music was playing while in essays you want a particular a bad mood or emotional state, only to find you are humming along or singing to flu vaccine paper the music that is playing? Music affects the way we feel, and it can alter the current state of our emotional well-being just by cristina listening to it. Often in flu vaccine everyday life, people overlook the importance that sounds make in our lives. In My Life! With. Emotion , Feeling , Psychology 827 Words | 3 Pages. ? MUH Essay 2 Sarah Ostrowski Wayne State University . Question 4: Tchaikovsky’s 1812 Overture was a very interesting song; there were many changes through out the piece. It started out sounding like a battle symphony where Tchaikovsky used the flu vaccine research paper instruments to make a choppy sound, which reminded me of a march, as well as gun sounds. He has a great use of essay on poverty alleviation in south, crescendo at the beginning.

Along with increasing the sound. Don Giovanni , Music , Musical instrument 1603 Words | 7 Pages. My name is Eric Valencia and I began playing piano three and a half years ago. I never had any interest in playing piano, although I loved hearing it. . My grandmother passed away december of 2008 and flu vaccine, I was deeply saddened by this event. My music history teacher in high school played a few pieces for us from the classical period. I remember hearing the Marriage of sass resume, figaro, Moonlight sonata, Don Giovanni, and a few others, but Moonlight sonata grabbed my attention the most. I began. Alexander Scriabin , Franz Liszt , Frederic Chopin 518 Words | 3 Pages. even in their jammies. Flu Vaccine Paper! Their music is really catchy and great.Cool me down I'm feeling so exotic Yaa right now.. Uw Madison Thesis! I'm hotter than the . Flu Vaccine Paper! tropics Take me down (Mr.

Worldwide) Mumbai Cuba baby let's go (Priyanka) La-love me all the way o Rio (Desi girl) I'm feeling so exotic Tumko jo dekha maine Toh maine ye jaan liya hai Pardesi babu ne Iss desi dil ko maan liya hai (x2) I'm like Bon Jovi I'm wanted Dead or alive, and ya better get with it And in music game i'm more of a dead than alive . 2005 singles , Hindi-language films , Indian films 590 Words | 4 Pages. THE WINNING ESSAY IDEA is happy to announce Aisa Ovshiyeva from Russia the winner of the thesis requirements IDEA Declaration of Interdependence . essay contest. Paper! Honorable mention also goes to Syed Hashim Zaidi, the ?rst runner up from Pakistan and Feshko Yliana the in my life essay second runner up from Ukraine who will receive IDEA publications. Aisa will receive a trip to the Interdependence Day Celebration in flu vaccine research paper Rome, Italy on September 12, 2004. Idebate Magazine would like to congratulate Aisa and we invite our readers to read. Africa , BBC World Service , Globalization 1182 Words | 4 Pages.

?An interview with Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj. Repoter: Asalamualaikum and a very good morning to Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj.Thanks you for . accepting our invitation to interview Tunku today. Uw Madison Thesis Requirements! TAR: It is my pleasure. Reporter: Ok Tunku, where were you study? TAR: During high school I learned the English Government high school, then I moved to paper Densirinder School, Bangkok, Thailand, then I moved back to Kedah and studies in Penang Free School in 1915.

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Good luck on the job hunt! Good luck on research paper, the job hunt! If the ramayana essays jobs are relevant to the ones you are applying for, then you can go as far back as you like. With regards to your military experience, check out paper, our military to civilian resume guide: https://resumegenius.com/blog/go-shooting-guns-coffee-runs. Any of the templates in library 2 would be suitable for manufacturing careers. In My! Best of luck! I’ve worked in the same industry for flu vaccine, the past 13 years. Multiple employers with jobs lasting two to three years each. The jobs have been similar, so the experience looks a bit repetitive. I need to find a template that highlights my experience without getting bogged down in the chronology, Any suggestions?

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I was always the cristina resume Executive Admin, but I did other jobs during that period. Yes, your suggestion is research paper, correct. Start with the company name and included the related jobs with their own bullet points underneath. Good luck! Consider trying the ‘Job Hopper’ or the ‘Executive.’ They should able to ramayana critical, fit all your jobs nicely. Ive never had a job so what should I use? Most of the flu vaccine research paper templates above would suit your situation, but we suggest trying the Career Changer template because it emphasizes skills over the dates of your professional experience. Requirements! (https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/career-level-life-situation-templates#career-changer-templates) Best of luck! We suggest using the ‘Gatsby’ Template. Good luck with grad school! As far as style, we suggest our ‘Professional’ template. Paper! In terms of format, if you want to include your restaurant experience, then you might want to consider using a functional format:https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide.

Hope this helps! We suggest using our ‘Entry-Level’ template. Good luck with the internship! Good Day Resume Genius.I’m a midwife by profession an has worked in a military hospital for essays on why you want a particular college, 16 years in KSA. I’m trying to apply as a home based ESL educator and an email respondent . Since I’m from the research paper medical profession, I’m having difficulty in ramayana essays choosing the research paper perfect resume.The skill I know is more on the medical.,clerical which involes data entry for appointments and summary, interpreter and sass resume, my part time informal english lessons to flu vaccine research, native speaking arabs.

What template should I use? Try the ‘Murray’ template. Good luck! Hello. Which is essay, good for cabin crew applicant? I have no many work experience in service. So i want to flu vaccine, highlight the other things. Essays On Why A Particular! Thanks #128578;

Take a look at our Flight Attendant resume sample: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/flight-attendant-resume-example You can download it and input your own information. Which template would you recommend for a career in education? Check out our teacher resume samples: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/teacher-resume-example You can download them and input your own experience. Try using the ‘Freeman’ template. Best of luck on the promotion! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a college freshman trying to apply for a competitive summer program with the paper USDA and South Dakota State University? Sound like the ‘Entry-Level’ template would be a good fit for what you’re trying to do.

Good luck with the summer program. Hi! Which resume template would you recommend for someone trying to tap into the finance and accounting market. Looking for an entry-level position. You should go with the in my life essay ‘Entry-Level’ template. Good luck with the job hunt. I have worked 32+ years as a nurse, the last 4 years taking care of my elderly father and online work. Now seeking to get back into the job market for extra income, not necessarily in the health field, just to earn some income and socialize. Flu Vaccine! What resume do you suggest? Try the life ‘Job Hopper’ template.

Good luck with your job search! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for flu vaccine research, a 9th grader trying to critical, apply for a doctor (any)?? Apparently, resume making and flu vaccine research, interviewing is our project for the fourth quarter this year. I couldn’t find any clear examples on cristina resume, the web, and I was hoping you could help me out with what template I should use..

Try using the ‘Elegant 2.0’ template. Good luck on flu vaccine paper, your project. Yes, if you click the cristina sass resume View all Resume Designs button and click the download link for the template pack of your choice. If you’ve never written a resume before, I’d recommend checking out our “How to Write a Resume” guide to get a clearer idea (it’s much more comprehensive than any answer I can give here). https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume. Hit us up with any follow-up questions after giving that a read we’ll see if we can help further! Good luck! Hey there Margaret, In order to best understand which template works, it’s a good idea to check out which resume format fits your particular needs; then you can take it from there. Paper! https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. All of the templates were created by professional resume writers, so it’s hard to go wrong with any of them — it just depends on your preference. Good luck!

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I understand that some regulations and rules change over the years — it may just be a matter of taking a test or updating your certifications, but I’m not certain. If that doesn’t seem to flu vaccine, be a problem then go with the book summarys functional resume for sure. Good luck on the job hunt! If you are lacking in major experience, I’d recommend using a reverse chronological format for your resume. Our “Classic” template on this page should do the trick: https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/ Good luck at the job fair! I recommend you first check out our internship resume sample page: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/internship-resume-example. Afterwards, feel free to paper, choose any format – just use a comprehensive education section instead of a professional experience section, and you should be good. Good luck landing that internship! Share Free Downloadable Resume Templates Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to thesis requirements, help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market.

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Washington’s Farewell Address 1796. Friends and Citizens: The period for a new election of a citizen to administer the executive government of the United States being not far distant, and the time actually arrived when your thoughts must be employed in flu vaccine research designating the cristina, person who is to be clothed with that important trust, it appears to me proper, especially as it may conduce to a more distinct expression of the public voice, that I should now apprise you of the resolution I have formed, to decline being considered among the number of those out of flu vaccine whom a choice is to be made. I beg you, at essays on why college the same time, to do me the research, justice to be assured that this resolution has not been taken without a strict regard to all the considerations appertaining to the relation which binds a dutiful citizen to his country; and that in withdrawing the tender of to attend a particular college service, which silence in my situation might imply, I am influenced by no diminution of zeal for your future interest, no deficiency of grateful respect for your past kindness, but am supported by a full conviction that the step is compatible with both. The acceptance of, and continuance hitherto in, the office to which your suffrages have twice called me have been a uniform sacrifice of inclination to the opinion of duty and to research a deference for what appeared to be your desire. Essay Alleviation In South. I constantly hoped that it would have been much earlier in my power, consistently with motives which I was not at liberty to disregard, to return to that retirement from which I had been reluctantly drawn. Flu Vaccine. The strength of my inclination to do this, previous to essays on why to attend the last election, had even led to research paper the preparation of an address to declare it to you; but mature reflection on the then perplexed and critical posture of our affairs with foreign nations, and the unanimous advice of persons entitled to my confidence, impelled me to abandon the idea. I rejoice that the state of your concerns, external as well as internal, no longer renders the pursuit of inclination incompatible with the sentiment of duty or propriety, and am persuaded, whatever partiality may be retained for my services, that, in the present circumstances of book summarys our country, you will not disapprove my determination to retire. The impressions with which I first undertook the arduous trust were explained on the proper occasion. In the discharge of research paper this trust, I will only say that I have, with good intentions, contributed towards the organization and administration of the uw madison thesis, government the best exertions of which a very fallible judgment was capable. Not unconscious in the outset of the inferiority of my qualifications, experience in my own eyes, perhaps still more in flu vaccine research paper the eyes of on poverty in south africa others, has strengthened the motives to flu vaccine diffidence of myself; and every day the increasing weight of years admonishes me more and more that the shade of retirement is as necessary to me as it will be welcome.

Satisfied that if any circumstances have given peculiar value to my services, they were temporary, I have the consolation to believe that, while choice and prudence invite me to quit the political scene, patriotism does not forbid it. In looking forward to the moment which is intended to terminate the career of my public life, my feelings do not permit me to suspend the deep acknowledgment of that debt of gratitude which I owe to my beloved country for the many honors it has conferred upon me; still more for the steadfast confidence with which it has supported me; and for the opportunities I have thence enjoyed of manifesting my inviolable attachment, by services faithful and music life persevering, though in flu vaccine paper usefulness unequal to my zeal. If benefits have resulted to our country from these services, let it always be remembered to your praise, and as an instructive example in our annals, that under circumstances in which the passions, agitated in in my life essay every direction, were liable to mislead, amidst appearances sometimes dubious, vicissitudes of flu vaccine fortune often discouraging, in situations in which not unfrequently want of success has countenanced the spirit of criticism, the constancy of uw madison your support was the essential prop of the efforts, and a guarantee of the plans by which they were effected. Profoundly penetrated with this idea, I shall carry it with me to my grave, as a strong incitement to unceasing vows that heaven may continue to you the choicest tokens of its beneficence; that your union and brotherly affection may be perpetual; that the free Constitution, which is the work of your hands, may be sacredly maintained; that its administration in every department may be stamped with wisdom and virtue; that, in fine, the flu vaccine research paper, happiness of the people of uw madison requirements these States, under the auspices of liberty, may be made complete by so careful a preservation and so prudent a use of flu vaccine research this blessing as will acquire to them the glory of recommending it to the applause, the affection, and adoption of every nation which is yet a stranger to it. Here, perhaps, I ought to stop. On Poverty Alleviation In South. But a solicitude for your welfare, which cannot end but with my life, and the apprehension of flu vaccine danger, natural to that solicitude, urge me, on an occasion like the present, to offer to your solemn contemplation, and to recommend to your frequent review, some sentiments which are the result of on poverty much reflection, of no inconsiderable observation, and which appear to me all-important to the permanency of your felicity as a people.

These will be offered to you with the more freedom, as you can only see in them the flu vaccine, disinterested warnings of cristina sass resume a parting friend, who can possibly have no personal motive to bias his counsel. Flu Vaccine Research. Nor can I forget, as an encouragement to it, your indulgent reception of my sentiments on a former and not dissimilar occasion. Interwoven as is the love of liberty with every ligament of your hearts, no recommendation of mine is uw madison thesis necessary to fortify or confirm the attachment. The unity of government which constitutes you one people is also now dear to you. It is justly so, for it is research paper a main pillar in the edifice of book summarys your real independence, the support of your tranquility at home, your peace abroad; of your safety; of your prosperity; of that very liberty which you so highly prize. But as it is easy to foresee that, from different causes and research paper from different quarters, much pains will be taken, many artifices employed to weaken in your minds the book summarys, conviction of this truth; as this is the flu vaccine research, point in your political fortress against alleviation in south which the batteries of internal and paper external enemies will be most constantly and actively (though often covertly and insidiously) directed, it is of infinite moment that you should properly estimate the immense value of your national union to your collective and individual happiness; that you should cherish a cordial, habitual, and immovable attachment to it; accustoming yourselves to think and speak of it as of the palladium of your political safety and book summarys prosperity; watching for its preservation with jealous anxiety; discountenancing whatever may suggest even a suspicion that it can in any event be abandoned; and indignantly frowning upon the first dawning of every attempt to alienate any portion of flu vaccine paper our country from the rest, or to enfeeble the sacred ties which now link together the various parts.

For this you have every inducement of sympathy and interest. Citizens, by birth or choice, of a common country, that country has a right to concentrate your affections. The name of essay on poverty in south africa American, which belongs to you in research your national capacity, must always exalt the just pride of patriotism more than any appellation derived from local discriminations. With slight shades of difference, you have the same religion, manners, habits, and political principles. You have in cristina a common cause fought and triumphed together; the independence and flu vaccine research paper liberty you possess are the work of joint counsels, and essay on poverty alleviation in south joint efforts of common dangers, sufferings, and successes. But these considerations, however powerfully they address themselves to paper your sensibility, are greatly outweighed by those which apply more immediately to your interest. Here every portion of our country finds the most commanding motives for carefully guarding and preserving the union of the whole. The North, in an unrestrained intercourse with the South, protected by the equal laws of a common government, finds in the productions of the latter great additional resources of maritime and commercial enterprise and requirements precious materials of manufacturing industry. The South, in the same intercourse, benefiting by the agency of the North, sees its agriculture grow and its commerce expand. Turning partly into its own channels the seamen of the North, it finds its particular navigation invigorated; and, while it contributes, in different ways, to nourish and flu vaccine research paper increase the general mass of the national navigation, it looks forward to the protection of a maritime strength, to which itself is ramayana critical unequally adapted.

The East, in a like intercourse with the West, already finds, and in paper the progressive improvement of interior communications by land and water, will more and more find a valuable vent for the commodities which it brings from music, abroad, or manufactures at home. The West derives from the East supplies requisite to its growth and comfort, and, what is perhaps of still greater consequence, it must of necessity owe the secure enjoyment of indispensable outlets for its own productions to flu vaccine the weight, influence, and the future maritime strength of the Atlantic side of the Union, directed by an indissoluble community of interest as one nation. Ramayana Essays. Any other tenure by which the West can hold this essential advantage, whether derived from research, its own separate strength, or from an apostate and unnatural connection with any foreign power, must be intrinsically precarious. While, then, every part of our country thus feels an in south africa immediate and particular interest in union, all the parts combined cannot fail to find in flu vaccine research paper the united mass of means and efforts greater strength, greater resource, proportionably greater security from external danger, a less frequent interruption of their peace by foreign nations; and, what is of inestimable value, they must derive from union an exemption from those broils and wars between themselves, which so frequently afflict neighboring countries not tied together by the same governments, which their own rival ships alone would be sufficient to produce, but which opposite foreign alliances, attachments, and intrigues would stimulate and ramayana embitter. Hence, likewise, they will avoid the necessity of those overgrown military establishments which, under any form of government, are inauspicious to liberty, and which are to be regarded as particularly hostile to republican liberty. In this sense it is that your union ought to be considered as a main prop of your liberty, and that the love of the flu vaccine research paper, one ought to endear to music in my you the preservation of the other. These considerations speak a persuasive language to research paper every reflecting and virtuous mind, and exhibit the continuance of the thesis requirements, Union as a primary object of patriotic desire. Is there a doubt whether a common government can embrace so large a sphere? Let experience solve it. To listen to mere speculation in paper such a case were criminal.

We are authorized to hope that a proper organization of the whole with the auxiliary agency of governments for cristina the respective subdivisions, will afford a happy issue to the experiment. Flu Vaccine Research. It is well worth a fair and full experiment. Critical. With such powerful and obvious motives to union, affecting all parts of our country, while experience shall not have demonstrated its impracticability, there will always be reason to distrust the patriotism of those who in any quarter may endeavor to weaken its bands. In contemplating the causes which may disturb our Union, it occurs as matter of serious concern that any ground should have been furnished for characterizing parties by geographical discriminations, Northern and Southern, Atlantic and paper Western; whence designing men may endeavor to excite a belief that there is book summarys a real difference of local interests and flu vaccine paper views. One of the expedients of alleviation africa party to acquire influence within particular districts is to misrepresent the opinions and aims of other districts.

You cannot shield yourselves too much against flu vaccine the jealousies and cristina sass heartburnings which spring from these misrepresentations; they tend to render alien to flu vaccine each other those who ought to on why a particular be bound together by fraternal affection. The inhabitants of our Western country have lately had a useful lesson on this head; they have seen, in the negotiation by the Executive, and in flu vaccine research paper the unanimous ratification by music life the Senate, of the treaty with Spain, and in the universal satisfaction at that event, throughout the paper, United States, a decisive proof how unfounded were the suspicions propagated among them of a policy in the General Government and in cristina sass the Atlantic States unfriendly to their interests in regard to the Mississippi; they have been witnesses to the formation of two treaties, that with Great Britain, and that with Spain, which secure to flu vaccine research them everything they could desire, in respect to our foreign relations, towards confirming their prosperity. Will it not be their wisdom to rely for the preservation of these advantages on the Union by which they were procured? Will they not henceforth be deaf to those advisers, if such there are, who would sever them from their brethren and connect them with aliens? To the efficacy and permanency of your Union, a government for the whole is indispensable. No alliance, however strict, between the parts can be an essay on poverty africa adequate substitute; they must inevitably experience the infractions and interruptions which all alliances in research all times have experienced. Sensible of this momentous truth, you have improved upon your first essay, by the adoption of a constitution of government better calculated than your former for an intimate union, and for the efficacious management of essay in south your common concerns. This government, the offspring of our own choice, uninfluenced and unawed, adopted upon full investigation and mature deliberation, completely free in its principles, in the distribution of its powers, uniting security with energy, and containing within itself a provision for its own amendment, has a just claim to your confidence and your support. Respect for its authority, compliance with its laws, acquiescence in its measures, are duties enjoined by the fundamental maxims of true liberty.

The basis of our political systems is the right of the people to make and to flu vaccine research alter their constitutions of book summarys government. But the Constitution which at any time exists, till changed by an explicit and authentic act of the research paper, whole people, is sacredly obligatory upon all. The very idea of the power and you want to attend a particular college the right of the people to establish government presupposes the duty of every individual to obey the established government. All obstructions to the execution of the laws, all combinations and associations, under whatever plausible character, with the real design to flu vaccine research direct, control, counteract, or awe the regular deliberation and requirements action of the flu vaccine paper, constituted authorities, are destructive of this fundamental principle, and of fatal tendency. They serve to on poverty alleviation africa organize faction, to give it an artificial and extraordinary force; to put, in the place of the delegated will of the nation the will of flu vaccine a party, often a small but artful and enterprising minority of the community; and, according to the alternate triumphs of different parties, to make the public administration the mirror of the ill-concerted and incongruous projects of faction, rather than the organ of consistent and wholesome plans digested by common counsels and modified by mutual interests. However combinations or associations of the above description may now and then answer popular ends, they are likely, in the course of time and things, to become potent engines, by on poverty alleviation in south africa which cunning, ambitious, and unprincipled men will be enabled to research paper subvert the power of the book summarys, people and to usurp for themselves the reins of government, destroying afterwards the very engines which have lifted them to unjust dominion. Towards the preservation of flu vaccine your government, and the permanency of your present happy state, it is requisite, not only that you steadily discountenance irregular oppositions to thesis requirements its acknowledged authority, but also that you resist with care the spirit of innovation upon flu vaccine research paper, its principles, however specious the pretexts. One method of assault may be to effect, in the forms of the Constitution, alterations which will impair the energy of the system, and thus to undermine what cannot be directly overthrown.

In all the changes to which you may be invited, remember that time and habit are at least as necessary to cristina sass resume fix the true character of governments as of other human institutions; that experience is the surest standard by which to flu vaccine paper test the real tendency of the existing constitution of a country; that facility in changes, upon uw madison thesis requirements, the credit of mere hypothesis and opinion, exposes to perpetual change, from the endless variety of hypothesis and opinion; and remember, especially, that for the efficient management of your common interests, in a country so extensive as ours, a government of as much vigor as is consistent with the perfect security of liberty is indispensable. Liberty itself will find in research paper such a government, with powers properly distributed and adjusted, its surest guardian. It is, indeed, little else than a name, where the government is too feeble to withstand the life, enterprises of faction, to confine each member of the society within the limits prescribed by the laws, and to maintain all in the secure and flu vaccine paper tranquil enjoyment of the rights of person and property. I have already intimated to you the danger of parties in the State, with particular reference to the founding of them on geographical discriminations. Let me now take a more comprehensive view, and warn you in the most solemn manner against the baneful effects of the book summarys, spirit of party generally. This spirit, unfortunately, is inseparable from our nature, having its root in the strongest passions of the human mind. It exists under different shapes in all governments, more or less stifled, controlled, or repressed; but, in those of the flu vaccine paper, popular form, it is seen in its greatest rankness, and is truly their worst enemy. The alternate domination of one faction over another, sharpened by the spirit of revenge, natural to party dissension, which in different ages and countries has perpetrated the most horrid enormities, is itself a frightful despotism. But this leads at length to a more formal and permanent despotism.

The disorders and critical essays miseries which result gradually incline the minds of men to seek security and repose in the absolute power of an individual; and sooner or later the chief of some prevailing faction, more able or more fortunate than his competitors, turns this disposition to the purposes of his own elevation, on the ruins of public liberty. Without looking forward to an extremity of this kind (which nevertheless ought not to be entirely out of sight), the common and continual mischiefs of the spirit of party are sufficient to make it the interest and duty of a wise people to discourage and flu vaccine research paper restrain it. It serves always to distract the ramayana, public councils and paper enfeeble the public administration. It agitates the ramayana critical, community with ill-founded jealousies and false alarms, kindles the animosity of one part against paper another, foments occasionally riot and insurrection. It opens the door to foreign influence and corruption, which finds a facilitated access to the government itself through the book summarys, channels of party passions.

Thus the policy and the will of one country are subjected to the policy and will of research another. There is an opinion that parties in free countries are useful checks upon the administration of the government and serve to keep alive the spirit of liberty. Critical. This within certain limits is probably true; and in governments of a monarchical cast, patriotism may look with indulgence, if not with favor, upon the spirit of party. Flu Vaccine. But in those of the popular character, in governments purely elective, it is a spirit not to in south be encouraged. From their natural tendency, it is certain there will always be enough of that spirit for paper every salutary purpose. Ramayana Essays. And there being constant danger of excess, the research paper, effort ought to ramayana be by force of public opinion, to mitigate and assuage it. A fire not to be quenched, it demands a uniform vigilance to prevent its bursting into a flame, lest, instead of warming, it should consume. It is important, likewise, that the habits of thinking in a free country should inspire caution in those entrusted with its administration, to confine themselves within their respective constitutional spheres, avoiding in paper the exercise of the powers of one department to music essay encroach upon another.

The spirit of encroachment tends to consolidate the powers of all the departments in one, and thus to create, whatever the form of government, a real despotism. A just estimate of that love of power, and proneness to abuse it, which predominates in the human heart, is sufficient to satisfy us of the truth of this position. The necessity of flu vaccine research reciprocal checks in the exercise of political power, by uw madison dividing and distributing it into different depositaries, and constituting each the guardian of the public weal against invasions by the others, has been evinced by experiments ancient and modern; some of flu vaccine paper them in our country and under our own eyes. Music Essay. To preserve them must be as necessary as to institute them. If, in the opinion of the people, the distribution or modification of the constitutional powers be in any particular wrong, let it be corrected by an amendment in the way which the Constitution designates. But let there be no change by usurpation; for though this, in one instance, may be the instrument of research paper good, it is the customary weapon by which free governments are destroyed. Essays On Why To Attend. The precedent must always greatly overbalance in permanent evil any partial or transient benefit, which the research, use can at sass any time yield. Of all the dispositions and habits which lead to political prosperity, religion and research morality are indispensable supports. In vain would that man claim the in my life, tribute of patriotism, who should labor to subvert these great pillars of research paper human happiness, these firmest props of the duties of men and citizens. The mere politician, equally with the pious man, ought to respect and to book summarys cherish them.

A volume could not trace all their connections with private and public felicity. Let it simply be asked: Where is the flu vaccine research, security for property, for reputation, for life, if the sense of religious obligation desert the oaths which are the instruments of investigation in courts of justice ? And let us with caution indulge the cristina sass resume, supposition that morality can be maintained without religion. Whatever may be conceded to the influence of refined education on minds of research peculiar structure, reason and experience both forbid us to expect that national morality can prevail in exclusion of religious principle. It is book summarys substantially true that virtue or morality is a necessary spring of popular government. The rule, indeed, extends with more or less force to every species of paper free government. Who that is a sincere friend to it can look with indifference upon attempts to shake the foundation of the fabric? Promote then, as an object of primary importance, institutions for the general diffusion of knowledge. In proportion as the structure of essay africa a government gives force to research paper public opinion, it is essential that public opinion should be enlightened. As a very important source of you want a particular college strength and security, cherish public credit.

One method of paper preserving it is to use it as sparingly as possible, avoiding occasions of expense by cultivating peace, but remembering also that timely disbursements to prepare for danger frequently prevent much greater disbursements to repel it, avoiding likewise the cristina resume, accumulation of debt, not only by shunning occasions of expense, but by vigorous exertion in time of peace to discharge the debts which unavoidable wars may have occasioned, not ungenerously throwing upon posterity the burden which we ourselves ought to flu vaccine research bear. The execution of cristina these maxims belongs to your representatives, but it is necessary that public opinion should co-operate. To facilitate to them the performance of their duty, it is essential that you should practically bear in mind that towards the flu vaccine research paper, payment of debts there must be revenue; that to have revenue there must be taxes; that no taxes can be devised which are not more or less inconvenient and unpleasant; that the intrinsic embarrassment, inseparable from the music in my life, selection of the flu vaccine paper, proper objects (which is always a choice of difficulties), ought to be a decisive motive for a candid construction of the conduct of the government in making it, and for a spirit of acquiescence in the measures for obtaining revenue, which the public exigencies may at on why a particular college any time dictate. Observe good faith and justice towards all nations; cultivate peace and harmony with all. Religion and research paper morality enjoin this conduct; and can it be, that good policy does not equally enjoin it – It will be worthy of a free, enlightened, and at no distant period, a great nation, to give to mankind the music life essay, magnanimous and too novel example of a people always guided by an exalted justice and flu vaccine paper benevolence. Who can doubt that, in sass resume the course of time and things, the fruits of such a plan would richly repay any temporary advantages which might be lost by flu vaccine a steady adherence to it ? Can it be that Providence has not connected the permanent felicity of a nation with its virtue ? The experiment, at least, is recommended by every sentiment which ennobles human nature.

Alas! is it rendered impossible by its vices? In the execution of critical essays such a plan, nothing is more essential than that permanent, inveterate antipathies against particular nations, and passionate attachments for others, should be excluded; and that, in place of research them, just and amicable feelings towards all should be cultivated. The nation which indulges towards another a habitual hatred or a habitual fondness is in cristina sass some degree a slave. It is a slave to its animosity or to its affection, either of which is sufficient to lead it astray from its duty and flu vaccine research its interest. Antipathy in one nation against another disposes each more readily to offer insult and injury, to lay hold of slight causes of umbrage, and to be haughty and intractable, when accidental or trifling occasions of dispute occur. Ramayana Essays. Hence, frequent collisions, obstinate, envenomed, and bloody contests. The nation, prompted by ill-will and resentment, sometimes impels to war the government, contrary to the best calculations of policy. The government sometimes participates in the national propensity, and adopts through passion what reason would reject; at other times it makes the flu vaccine research, animosity of the nation subservient to projects of hostility instigated by pride, ambition, and other sinister and pernicious motives. Essay On Poverty Alleviation In South. The peace often, sometimes perhaps the liberty, of nations, has been the flu vaccine research paper, victim. So likewise, a passionate attachment of one nation for another produces a variety of evils. Sympathy for the favorite nation, facilitating the illusion of an imaginary common interest in cases where no real common interest exists, and infusing into one the enmities of the other, betrays the former into a participation in the quarrels and wars of the latter without adequate inducement or justification.

It leads also to concessions to the favorite nation of privileges denied to others which is apt doubly to injure the book summarys, nation making the concessions; by unnecessarily parting with what ought to paper have been retained, and by essays you want to attend a particular college exciting jealousy, ill-will, and a disposition to retaliate, in the parties from whom equal privileges are withheld. And it gives to ambitious, corrupted, or deluded citizens (who devote themselves to the favorite nation), facility to betray or sacrifice the interests of their own country, without odium, sometimes even with popularity; gilding, with the research paper, appearances of a virtuous sense of obligation, a commendable deference for public opinion, or a laudable zeal for public good, the base or foolish compliances of ambition, corruption, or infatuation. As avenues to foreign influence in innumerable ways, such attachments are particularly alarming to the truly enlightened and independent patriot. Uw Madison Thesis Requirements. How many opportunities do they afford to tamper with domestic factions, to practice the arts of seduction, to mislead public opinion, to flu vaccine influence or awe the public councils. Such an attachment of a small or weak towards a great and powerful nation dooms the former to be the satellite of the latter. Against the insidious wiles of foreign influence (I conjure you to believe me, fellow-citizens) the jealousy of a free people ought to on poverty alleviation in south be constantly awake, since history and flu vaccine paper experience prove that foreign influence is one of the most baneful foes of republican government. Uw Madison Thesis. But that jealousy to be useful must be impartial; else it becomes the instrument of the very influence to be avoided, instead of a defense against it. Research. Excessive partiality for one foreign nation and excessive dislike of another cause those whom they actuate to essay in south africa see danger only on one side, and flu vaccine research paper serve to veil and even second the arts of influence on the other. Real patriots who may resist the intrigues of the favorite are liable to become suspected and odious, while its tools and dupes usurp the applause and confidence of the people, to surrender their interests. The great rule of conduct for us in regard to essays college foreign nations is in extending our commercial relations, to have with them as little political connection as possible. So far as we have already formed engagements, let them be fulfilled with perfect good faith.

Here let us stop. Europe has a set of primary interests which to us have none; or a very remote relation. Hence she must be engaged in paper frequent controversies, the causes of which are essentially foreign to essays our concerns. Hence, therefore, it must be unwise in us to implicate ourselves by artificial ties in the ordinary vicissitudes of flu vaccine research paper her politics, or the ordinary combinations and collisions of her friendships or enmities. Our detached and distant situation invites and enables us to pursue a different course. If we remain one people under an efficient government. the period is on poverty not far off when we may defy material injury from external annoyance; when we may take such an attitude as will cause the neutrality we may at any time resolve upon to be scrupulously respected; when belligerent nations, under the impossibility of making acquisitions upon us, will not lightly hazard the giving us provocation; when we may choose peace or war, as our interest, guided by justice, shall counsel. Why forego the advantages of so peculiar a situation?

Why quit our own to stand upon foreign ground? Why, by interweaving our destiny with that of any part of research Europe, entangle our peace and prosperity in the toils of European ambition, rivalship, interest, humor or caprice? It is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world; so far, I mean, as we are now at liberty to do it; for let me not be understood as capable of patronizing infidelity to existing engagements. Music In My Life. I hold the maxim no less applicable to public than to private affairs, that honesty is always the best policy. I repeat it, therefore, let those engagements be observed in their genuine sense. But, in my opinion, it is unnecessary and would be unwise to extend them. Taking care always to keep ourselves by suitable establishments on a respectable defensive posture, we may safely trust to temporary alliances for extraordinary emergencies. Harmony, liberal intercourse with all nations, are recommended by policy, humanity, and interest. But even our commercial policy should hold an equal and flu vaccine research paper impartial hand; neither seeking nor granting exclusive favors or preferences; consulting the natural course of book summarys things; diffusing and diversifying by gentle means the streams of paper commerce, but forcing nothing; establishing (with powers so disposed, in order to resume give trade a stable course, to define the rights of our merchants, and to enable the government to support them) conventional rules of intercourse, the best that present circumstances and mutual opinion will permit, but temporary, and flu vaccine liable to be from time to time abandoned or varied, as experience and circumstances shall dictate; constantly keeping in view that it is folly in on poverty alleviation in south one nation to research look for disinterested favors from another; that it must pay with a portion of its independence for music life whatever it may accept under that character; that, by such acceptance, it may place itself in the condition of having given equivalents for nominal favors, and yet of being reproached with ingratitude for not giving more. Research Paper. There can be no greater error than to expect or calculate upon real favors from nation to nation. It is an critical essays illusion, which experience must cure, which a just pride ought to discard.

In offering to you, my countrymen, these counsels of an old and flu vaccine affectionate friend, I dare not hope they will make the thesis requirements, strong and flu vaccine research paper lasting impression I could wish; that they will control the cristina resume, usual current of the research, passions, or prevent our nation from running the course which has hitherto marked the destiny of nations. But, if I may even flatter myself that they may be productive of some partial benefit, some occasional good; that they may now and then recur to moderate the fury of party spirit, to cristina sass resume warn against the mischiefs of foreign intrigue, to guard against the impostures of flu vaccine research pretended patriotism; this hope will be a full recompense for the solicitude for essay alleviation in south africa your welfare, by which they have been dictated. How far in the discharge of my official duties I have been guided by the principles which have been delineated, the public records and other evidence of my conduct must witness to you and to the world. To myself, the assurance of my own conscience is, that I have at least believed myself to be guided by research paper them. In relation to the still subsisting war in Europe, my proclamation of the twenty-second of April, I793, is the index of my plan. Sanctioned by your approving voice, and by essays on why you want to attend college that of your representatives in both houses of Congress, the spirit of that measure has continually governed me, uninfluenced by any attempts to deter or divert me from it. After deliberate examination, with the aid of the best lights I could obtain, I was well satisfied that our country, under all the circumstances of the case, had a right to take, and was bound in duty and interest to take, a neutral position.

Having taken it, I determined, as far as should depend upon me, to maintain it, with moderation, perseverance, and firmness. The considerations which respect the right to hold this conduct, it is not necessary on this occasion to detail. I will only observe that, according to research my understanding of the matter, that right, so far from being denied by any of the belligerent powers, has been virtually admitted by all. The duty of holding a neutral conduct may be inferred, without anything more, from the obligation which justice and humanity impose on every nation, in cases in which it is free to act, to maintain inviolate the relations of peace and amity towards other nations. The inducements of interest for on why you want a particular observing that conduct will best be referred to your own reflections and experience. With me, a predominant motive has been to endeavor to gain time to our country to settle and mature its yet recent institutions, and to progress without interruption to that degree of strength and consistency which is necessary to give it, humanly speaking, the command of its own fortunes. Though, in reviewing the incidents of my administration, I am unconscious of intentional error, I am nevertheless too sensible of my defects not to think it probable that I may have committed many errors. Research. Whatever they may be, I fervently beseech the Almighty to avert or mitigate the evils to which they may tend. I shall also carry with me the on why to attend a particular, hope that my country will never cease to view them with indulgence; and that, after forty-five years of my life dedicated to flu vaccine research its service with an upright zeal, the music life essay, faults of incompetent abilities will be consigned to research paper oblivion, as myself must soon be to book summarys the mansions of rest.

Relying on its kindness in this as in paper other things, and actuated by that fervent love towards it, which is so natural to essay alleviation in south a man who views in it the native soil of himself and his progenitors for several generations, I anticipate with pleasing expectation that retreat in which I promise myself to realize, without alloy, the sweet enjoyment of partaking, in the midst of my fellow-citizens, the benign influence of good laws under a free government, the ever-favorite object of my heart, and the happy reward, as I trust, of paper our mutual cares, labors, and dangers. THE EXISTENCE OF GOD AND THE BEGINNING OF THE UNIVERSE. William Craig earned a doctorate in philosophy at uw madison thesis the University of Birmingham, England, before taking a doctorate in flu vaccine research theology from the Ludwig Maximiliens Universitat-Munchen, West Germany, at which latter institution he was for book summarys two years a Fellow of the Alexander von Humboldt-Stiftung. He is flu vaccine paper currently a visiting scholar at the Universite Catholique de Louvain. He has authored various books, including The Kalam Cosmological Argument, The Cosmological Argument from Plato to Leibniz, and sass The Problem of Divine Foreknowledge and Future Contingents from Aristotle to Suarez , as well as articles in professional journals like British Journal for the Philosophy of Science , Zeitschrift fur Philosophische Forschung , Australasian Journal of flu vaccine Philosophy , and Philosophia . The kalam cosmological argument, by showing that the universe began to exist, demonstrates that the world is not a necessary being and, therefore, not self-explanatory with respect to its existence. Two philosophical arguments and uw madison thesis two scientific confirmations are presented in support of the beginning of the universe.

Since whatever begins to exist has a cause, there must exist a transcendent cause of the universe. Paper. Source: “The Existence of God and the Beginning of the Universe.” Truth: A Journal of Modern Thought 3 (1991): 85-96. “The first question which should rightly be asked,” wrote G.W.F. Leibniz, is “ Why is there something rather than nothing ?”[1] This question does seem to possess a profound existential force, which has been felt by book summarys some of mankind’s greatest thinkers. According to flu vaccine Aristotle, philosophy begins with a sense of a particular college wonder about the world, and the most profound question a man can ask concerns the origin of the universe.[2] In his biography of Ludwig Wittgenstein, Norman Malcolm reports that Wittgenstein said that he sometimes had a certain experience which could best be described by saying that “when I have it, I wonder at the existence of the world . I am then inclined to use such phrases as ‘How extraordinary that anything should exist!'”[3] Similarly, one contemporary philosopher remarks, “. . . My mind often seems to flu vaccine research reel under the life, immense significance this question has for me. That anything exists at all does seem to me a matter for research paper the deepest awe.”[4] Why does something exist instead of music in my life nothing? Leibniz answered this question by arguing that something exists rather than nothing because a necessary being exists which carries within itself its reason for existence and is the paper, sufficient reason for ramayana critical essays the existence of all contingent being.[5]

Although Leibniz (followed by certain contemporary philosophers) regarded the non- existence of a necessary being as logically impossible, a more modest explication of necessity of existence in terms of what he calls “factual necessity” has been given by John Hick: a necessary being is an eternal, uncaused, indestructible, and incorruptible being.[6] Leibniz, of course, identified the necessary being as God. His critics, however, disputed this identification, contending that the material universe could itself be assigned the status of a necessary being. “Why,” queried David Hume, “may not the flu vaccine, material universe be the necessary existent Being, according to cristina resume this pretended explanation of necessity?”[7] Typically, this has been precisely the position of the research, atheist. Atheists have not felt compelled to embrace the view that the universe came into being out of nothing for no reason at all; rather they regard the thesis requirements, universe itself as a sort of factually necessary being: the flu vaccine research, universe is eternal, uncaused, indestructible, and incorruptible. As Russell neatly put it, ” . . Essay. . The universe is just there, and that’s all.”[8] Does Leibniz’s argument, therefore, leave us in a rational impasse, or might there not be some further resources available for untangling the flu vaccine research, riddle of the ramayana critical essays, existence of the world? It seems to me that there are. It will be remembered that an essential property of a necessary being is eternality. If then it could be made plausible that the universe began to exist and is not, therefore, eternal, one would to flu vaccine research that extent at least have shown the superiority of theism as a rational world view. Now there is one form of the cosmological argument, much neglected today but of great historical importance, that aims precisely at the demonstration that the cristina resume, universe had a beginning in paper time.[9] Originating in uw madison thesis the efforts of Christian theologians to research refute the Greek doctrine of the eternity of matter, this argument was developed into sophisticated formulations by medieval Islamic and Jewish theologians, who in turn passed it back to the Latin West.

The argument thus has a broad intersectarian appeal, having been defended by Muslims, Jews, and Christians both Catholic and Protestant. This argument, which I have called the kalam cosmological argument, can be exhibited as follows: Let us examine this argument more closely. Defense of the essay alleviation in south, Kalam Cosmological Argument. Clearly, the crucial premiss in this argument is (2), and two independent arguments are offered in support of flu vaccine research paper it. Let us, therefore, turn first to an examination of the supporting arguments. In order to understand (2.1), we need to understand the difference between a potential infinite and an actual infinite. Crudely put, a potential infinite is a collection which is increasing toward infinity as a limit, but never gets there. Such a collection is music in my really indefinite, not infinite. The sign of this sort of flu vaccine research paper infinity, which is used in calculus, is ? . An actual infinite is a collection in which the number of members really is infinite. The collection is not growing toward infinity; it is infinite, it is “complete.” The sign of this sort of infinity, which is used in set theory to designate sets which have an infinite number of members, such as , is A 0 . Now (2.11) maintains, not that a potentially infinite number of things cannot exist, but that an actually infinite number of things cannot exist.

For if an on why to attend a particular actually infinite number of flu vaccine research things could exist, this would spawn all sorts of absurdities. Perhaps the best way to bring home the truth of (2.11) is by means of an illustration. Let me use one of my favorites, Hilbert’s Hotel, a product of the essays a particular college, mind of the great German mathematician, David Hilbert. Let us imagine a hotel with a finite number of rooms. Suppose, furthermore, that all the rooms are full . When a new guest arrives asking for research a room, the proprietor apologizes, “Sorry, all the rooms are full.” But now let us imagine a hotel with an infinite number of music essay rooms and suppose once more that all the flu vaccine, rooms are full. There is not a single vacant room throughout the ramayana critical, entire infinite hotel. Now suppose a new guest shows up, asking for a room. “But of course!” says the proprietor, and he immediately shifts the person in room #1 into room #2, the person in paper room #2 into room #3, the you want a particular college, person in room #3 into room #4 and so on, out to infinity. As a result of these room changes, room #1 now becomes vacant and research the new guest gratefully checks in. But remember, before he arrived, all the rooms were full! Equally curious, according to the mathematicians, there are now no more persons in the hotel than there were before: the number is just infinite.

But how can this be? The proprietor just added the new guest’s name to the register and gave him his keys-how can there not be one more person in the hotel than before? But the situation becomes even stranger. For suppose an infinity of new guests show up the desk, asking for a room. “Of course, of course!” says the proprietor, and he proceeds to shift the person in uw madison thesis requirements room #1 into room #2, the flu vaccine research, person in room #2 into uw madison, room #4, the person in room #3 into flu vaccine research, room #6, and so on out to infinity, always putting each former occupant into the room number twice his own. As a result, all the odd numbered rooms become vacant, and the infinity of sass resume new guests is easily accommodated. And yet, before they came, all the rooms were full!

And again, strangely enough, the number of guests in the hotel is the same after the infinity of new guests check in as before, even though there were as many new guests as old guests. In fact, the flu vaccine, proprietor could repeat this process infinitely many times and ramayana critical yet there would never be one single person more in the hotel than before. But Hilbert’s Hotel is even stranger than the German mathematician gave it out to be. For suppose some of the guests start to check out. Suppose the guest in flu vaccine paper room #1 departs. Is there not now one less person in on poverty the hotel? Not according to flu vaccine the mathematicians, but just ask the woman who makes the beds! Suppose the guests in book summarys room numbers 1, 3, 5, . . . check out. In this case, an infinite number of people have left the hotel, but according to the mathematicians there are no fewer people in the hotel—but don’t talk to flu vaccine research that laundry woman!

In fact, we could have every other guest check out on poverty of the hotel and repeat this process infinitely many times, and yet there would never be any f people in the hotel. But suppose instead the persons in room number 4, 5, 6, . . Flu Vaccine Research Paper. . checked out. At a single stroke, the hotel would be virtually emptied, the guest register reduced to three names, and requirements the infinite converted to finitude. And yet it would remain true that the fewer same number of flu vaccine research guests checked out this time as when the guests in room numbers 1, 3, 5, . . Alleviation In South Africa. . checked out. Can anyone sincerely believe that such a hotel could exist in reality? These sorts of absurdities illustrate the impossibility of the existence of an actually infinite number of things. That takes us to (2.12). The truth of flu vaccine paper this premiss seems fairly obvious. If the universe never began to exist, then prior to the present event there have existed an actually infinite number of previous events.

Hence, a beginningless series of events in music life essay time entails the flu vaccine research paper, existence of an actually infinite number of things, namely, past events. Given the truth of essay alleviation africa (2.11) and (2.12), the conclusion (2.13) logically follows. Paper. The series of past events must be finite and have a beginning. But since the universe is not distinct from the series of events, it follows that the universe began to exist. At this point, we might find it profitable to music in my consider several objections that might be raised against the argument. First, let us consider objections to (2.11). Flu Vaccine Research. Wallace Matson objects that the premiss must mean that an actually infinite number of things is in my life essay logically impossible, but it is easy to show that such a collection is flu vaccine paper logically possible. For example, the series of negative numbers is an book summarys actually infinite collection with no first member.[10] Matson’s error here lies in thinking that (2.11) means to assert the logical impossibility of an actually infinite number of things. What the premise expresses is the real or factual impossibility of an actual infinite.

To illustrate the difference between real and logical possibility: there is no logical impossibility in something’s coming to exist without a cause, but such a circumstance may well be really or metaphysically impossible. In the same way, (2.11) asserts that the absurdities entailed in the real existence of an actual infinite show that such an existence is metaphysically impossible. Paper. Hence, one could grant that in the conceptual realm of mathematics one can, given certain conventions and axioms, speak consistently about infinite sets of numbers, but this in no way implies that an actually infinite number of things is really possible. One might also note that the mathematical school of intuitionism denies that even the number series is actually infinite (they take it to be potentially infinite only), so that appeal to number series as examples of cristina resume actual infinites is a moot procedure. The late J.L. Mackie also objected to (2.11), claiming that the absurdities are resolved by noting that for research infinite groups the axiom “the whole is book summarys greater than its part” does not hold, as it does for finite groups.[11] Similarly, Quentin Smith comments that once we understand that an infinite set has a proper subset which has the same number of members as the set itself, the purportedly absurd situations become “perfectly believable.”[12] But to my mind, it is precisely this feature of infinite set theory which, when translated into paper, the realm of the real, yields results which are perfectly incredible, for example, Hilbert’s Hotel. Essay On Poverty In South Africa. Moreover, not all the absurdities stem from infinite set theory’s denial of Euclid’s axiom: the absurdities illustrated by guests checking out of the hotel stem from the self-contradictory results when the inverse operations of subtraction or division are performed using transfinite numbers. Here the case against an actually infinite collection of flu vaccine research things becomes decisive. Finally one might note the objection of ramayana Sorabji, who maintains that illustrations such as Hilbert’s Hotel involve no absurdity. In order to understand what is wrong with the kalam argument, he asks us to envision two parallel columns beginning at the same point and paper stretching away into essay in south, the infinite distance, one the column of past years and the other the column of past days. Flu Vaccine Paper. The sense in which the column of essays on why you want to attend past days is no larger than the column of past years, says Sorabji, is that the column of days will not “stick out” beyond the far end of the flu vaccine research, other column—since neither column has a far end.

Now in the case of Hilbert’s Hotel, there is the temptation to think that some unfortunate resident at the far end will drop off into space. But there is no far end: the critical essays, line of residents will not stick out beyond the far end of the line of rooms. Once this is seen, the outcome is just an explicable—even if a surprising and flu vaccine exhilarating—truth about infinity.[13] Now Sorabji is certainly correct, as we have seen, that Hilbert’s Hotel illustrates an explicable truth about the nature of the actual infinite. If an actually infinite number of things could exist, a Hilbert’s Hotel would be possible. But Sorabji seems to fail to understand the uw madison thesis requirements, heart of the paper, paradox: I, for one, experience no temptation to book summarys think of flu vaccine research people dropping off the far end of the hotel, for there is none, but I do have difficulty believing that a hotel in which all the rooms are occupied can accommodate more guests. Of course, the sass, line of guests will not stick out beyond the line of rooms, but if all of those infinite rooms already have guests in research them, then can moving those guests about really create empty rooms?

Sorabji’s own illustration of the columns of past years and days I find not a little disquieting: if we divide the columns into foot-long segments and mark one column as the years and the other as the music in my essay, days, then one column is as long as the other and yet for every foot-length segment in the column of years, 365 segments of equal length are found in the column of days! These paradoxical results can be avoided only if such actually infinite collections can exist only in flu vaccine the imagination, not in reality. In any case, the Hilbert’s Hotel illustration is sass not exhausted by flu vaccine research dealing only with the essays on why you want, addition of new guests, for the subtraction of guests results in absurdities even more intractable. Sorabji’s analysis says nothing to resolve these. Paper. Hence, it seems to me that the objections to premiss (2.11) are less plausible than the premiss itself.

With regard to (2.12), the most frequent objection is cristina resume that the past ought to be regarded as a potential infinite only, not an actual infinite. Research. This was Aquinas’s position versus Bonaventure, and the contemporary philosopher Charles Hartshorne seems to side with Thomas on book summarys this issue.[14] Such a position is, however, untenable. The future is research potentially infinite—since it does not exist—but the thesis requirements, past is flu vaccine research paper actual in a way the future is not, as evidenced by the fact that we have traces of the past in the present, but no traces of the in my essay, future. Hence, if the series of past events never began to flu vaccine paper exist, there must have been an actually infinite number of essay alleviation in south africa past events. The objections to paper either premiss, therefore, seem to be less compelling than the premisses themselves. Together they imply that the universe began to exist. Sass. Hence, I conclude that this argument furnishes good grounds for accepting the flu vaccine research, truth of premiss (2) that the universe began to exist. The second argument (2.2) for music life essay the beginning of the universe is flu vaccine research paper based on the impossibility of forming an actual infinite by successive addition. This argument is distinct from the first in thesis requirements that it does not deny the research, possibility of the existence of an actual infinite, but the on poverty alleviation in south, possibility of its being formed by successive addition.

Premiss (2.21) is the flu vaccine research paper, crucial step in the argument. One cannot form an actually infinite collection of things by successively adding one member after another. On Why To Attend A Particular College. Since one can always add one more before arriving at infinity, it is impossible to reach actual infinity. Sometimes this is called the impossibility of “counting to infinity” or “traversing the paper, infinite.” It is important to understand that this impossibility has nothing to do with the amount of time available: it belongs to the nature of infinity that it cannot be so formed. Now someone might say that while an infinite collection cannot be formed by beginning at a point and adding members, nevertheless an infinite collection could be formed by book summarys never beginning but ending at a point, that is to say, ending at a point after having added one member after another from eternity. Flu Vaccine. But this method seems even more unbelievable than the first method. Thesis Requirements. If one cannot count to research paper infinity, how can one count down from infinity? If one cannot traverse the uw madison, infinite by moving in one direction, how can one traverse it by simply moving in flu vaccine the opposite direction? Indeed, the idea of a beginningless series ending in the present seems to be absurd.

To give just one illustration: suppose we meet a man who claims to have been counting from critical, eternity and is now finishing: . . ., -3, -2, -1, 0. We could ask, why did he not finish counting yesterday or the paper, day before or the critical essays, year before? By then an infinite time had already elapsed, so that he should already have finished by then. Thus, at no point in the infinite past could we ever find the man finishing his countdown, for paper by that point he should already be done! In fact, no matter how far back into the past we go, we can never find the uw madison thesis, man counting at all, for at any point we reach he will have already finished. But if at no point in the past do we find him counting, this contradicts the hypothesis that he has been counting from eternity. Flu Vaccine Paper. This illustrates the fact that the formation of an actual infinite by successive addition is equally impossible whether one proceeds to uw madison thesis or from research paper, infinity. Premiss (2.22) presupposes a dynamical view of time according to which events are actualized in serial fashion, one after another. The series of events is essays you want a particular college not a sort of timelessly subsisting world-line which appears successively in consciousness. Rather becoming is paper real and essential to a temporal process.

Now this view of sass resume time is not without its challenges, but to paper consider their objections in this article would take us too far afield.[15] In this piece, we must rest content with the fact that we are arguing on common ground with our ordinary intuitions of essay on poverty in south africa temporal becoming and in agreement with a good number of contemporary philosophers of flu vaccine paper time and space. Given the truth of (2.21) and (2.22), the book summarys, conclusion (2.23) logically follows. Flu Vaccine Research Paper. If the universe did not begin to exist a finite time ago, then the present moment could never arrive. But obviously, it has arrived. On Poverty In South Africa. Therefore, we know that the universe is research paper finite in the past and began to exist. Again, it would be profitable to consider various objections that have been offered against this reasoning. Against (2.21), Mackie objects that the argument illicitly assumes an infinitely distant starting point in the past and then pronounces it impossible to travel from that point to today.

But there would in an infinite past be no starting point, not even an infinitely distant one. Yet from any given point in the infinite past, there is on why you want only a finite distance to the present.[16] Now it seems to me that Mackie’s allegation that the paper, argument presupposes an infinitely distant starting point is entirely groundless. The beginningless character of the series only serves to accentuate the difficulty of uw madison thesis its being formed by successive addition. The fact that there is no beginning at all , not even an infinitely distant one, makes the problem more, not less, nettlesome. And the flu vaccine, point that from any moment in the infinite past there is only a finite temporal distance to the present may be dismissed as irrelevant. The question is not how any finite portion of the sass, temporal series can be formed, but how the whole infinite series can be formed. If Mackie thinks that because every segment of the series can be formed by flu vaccine research successive addition and therefore the whole series can be so formed, then he is simply committing the fallacy of composition.

Sorabji similarly objects that the reason it is impossible to count down from infinity is because counting involves by nature taking a starting number, which is lacking in book summarys this case. Flu Vaccine. But completing an infinite lapse of thesis years involves no starting year and is, hence, possible.[17] But this response is clearly inadequate, for, as we have seen, the years of an infinite past could be enumerated by the negative numbers, in which case a completed infinity of years would, indeed, entail a beginningless countdown from infinity. Paper. Sorabji anticipates this rebuttal, however, and claims that such a backwards countdown is possible in principle and therefore no logical barrier has been exhibited to the elapsing of an infinity of past years. Uw Madison. Again, however, the question I am posing is research paper not whether there is a logical contradiction in such a notion, but whether such a countdown is not metaphysically absurd. For we have seen that such a countdown should at any point already have been completed. But Sorabji is again ready with a response: to uw madison thesis requirements say the flu vaccine research, countdown should at any point already be over confuses counting an infinity of numbers with counting all the numbers.

At any given point in the past, the eternal counter will have already counted an infinity of negative numbers, but that does not entail that he will have counted all the negative numbers. Requirements. I do not think the argument makes this alleged equivocation, and this may be made clear by examining the paper, reason why our eternal counter is supposedly able to complete a count of the negative numbers ending at zero. In order to justify the possibility of this intuitively impossible feat, the cristina, argument’s opponent appeals to the so- called Principle of Correspondence used in flu vaccine paper set theory to determine whether two sets are equivalent (that is, have the same number of members) by book summarys matching the members of one set with the members of the flu vaccine paper, other set and vice versa . On the basis of uw madison thesis requirements this principle the objector argues that since the counter has lived, say, an infinite number of years and flu vaccine since the set of past years can be put into a one-to-one correspondence with the set of negative numbers, it follows that by counting one number a year an eternal counter would complete a countdown of the negative numbers by the present year. If we were to ask why the counter would not finish next year or in a hundred years, the objector would respond that prior to the present year an infinite number of years will have already elapsed, so that by the Principle of Correspondence, all the numbers should have been counted by now. Uw Madison. But this reasoning backfires on the objector: for, as we have seen, on this account the flu vaccine research paper, counter should at any point in the past have already finished counting all the numbers, since a one-to-one correspondence exists between the years of the past and the negative numbers. Thus, there is no equivocation between counting an infinity of numbers and counting all the numbers. But at this point a deeper absurdity bursts in view: for suppose there were another counter who counted at a rate of one negative number per day. According to the Principle of Correspondence, which underlies infinite set theory and transfinite arithmetic, both of our eternal counters will finish their countdowns at the same moment, even though one is counting at essays a rate 365 times faster than the other! Can anyone believe that such scenarios can actually obtain in reality, but do not rather represent the outcome of an imaginary game being played in a purely conceptual realm according to adopted logical conventions and flu vaccine paper axioms? As for premiss (2.22), many thinkers have objected that we need not regard the past as a beginningless infinite series with an end in on why you want college the present. Popper, for example, admits that the set of all past events is actually infinite, but holds that the series of past events is potentially infinite.

This may be seen by beginning in the present and paper numbering the events backward, thus forming a potential infinite. Uw Madison. Therefore, the problem of an actual infinite’s being formed by successive addition does not arise.[18] Similarly, Swinburne muses that it is paper dubious whether a completed infinite series with no beginning but an end makes sense, but he proposes to solve the problem by ramayana critical essays beginning in the present and flu vaccine paper regressing into the past so that the series of past events would have no end and would therefore not be a completed infinite.[19] This objection, however, clearly confuses the mental regress of counting with the real progress of the temporal series of events itself. Thesis Requirements. Numbering the series from the present backward only shows that if there are an infinite number of past events, then we can enumerate an infinite number of past events. But the problem is, how can this infinite collection of events come to paper be formed by successive addition? How we mentally conceive the series does not in any way affect the ontological character of the series itself as a series with no beginning but an end, or in essays on why you want to attend other words, as an actual infinite completed by successive addition. Once again, then, the objections to (2.21) and paper (2.22) seem less plausible than the premisses themselves.

Together they imply (2.23), or that the universe began to exist. These purely philosophical arguments for the beginning of the essays you want, universe have received remarkable confirmation from discoveries in astronomy and astrophysics during this century. Flu Vaccine Research. These confirmations might be summarized under two heads: the ramayana, confirmation from the expansion of the flu vaccine, universe and book summarys the confirmation from thermodynamic properties of the universe. With regard to flu vaccine research paper the first, Hubble’s discovery in 1929 of the red-shift in the light from distant galaxies began a revolution in essay astronomy perhaps as significant as the Copernican revolution. Prior to this time the flu vaccine, universe as a whole was conceived to be static; but the startling conclusion to which Hubble was led was that the red-shift is due to the fact that the universe is in music in my life fact expanding . Research Paper. The staggering implication of this fact is thesis that as one traces the expansion back in time, the universe becomes denser and denser until one reaches a point of infinite density from which the universe began to research expand.

The upshot of book summarys Hubble’s discovery was that at paper some point in the finite past-probably around 15 billion years ago-the entire known universe was contracted down to book summarys a single mathematical point which marked the origin of the universe. That initial explosion has come to be known as the “Big Bang.” Four of the world’s most prominent astronomers described that event in these words: The universe began from a state of infinite density. . . . Space and time were created in that event and so was all the matter in the universe. It is not meaningful to ask what happened before the paper, Big Bang; it is music life like asking what is north of the North Pole. Research. Similarly, it is not sensible to ask where the Big Bang took place. The point-universe was not an book summarys object isolated in space; it was the entire universe, and so the answer can only be that the Big Bang happened everywhere.[20] This event that marked the research, beginning of the universe becomes all the more amazing when one reflects on the fact that a state of “infinite density” is ramayana critical essays synonymous to “nothing.” There can be no object that possesses infinite density, for if it had any size at all it could still be even more dense.

Therefore, as Cambridge astronomer Fred Hoyle points out, the Big Bang Theory requires the creation of matter from nothing. This is because as one goes back in time, one reaches a point at which, in Hoyle’s words, the universe was “shrunk down to nothing at all.”[21] Thus, what the research paper, Big Bang model of the universe seems to require is that the universe began to exist and was created out of nothing. Some theorists have attempted to avoid the absolute beginning of the universe implied by cristina sass the Big Bang theory by speculating that the universe may undergo an infinite series of expansions and contractions. Flu Vaccine Paper. There are, however, good grounds for doubting the book summarys, adequacy of such an oscillating model of the universe: (i) The oscillating model appears to flu vaccine research be physically impossible. For all the talk about such models, the in south africa, fact seems to be that they are only theoretically, but not physically possible. As the late Professor Tinsley of Yale explains, in oscillating models “even though the mathematics say that the universe oscillates, there is no known physics to reverse the collapse and bounce back to a new expansion. Flu Vaccine. The physics seems to say that those models start from the book summarys, Big Bang, expand, collapse, then end.”[22] In order for the oscillating model to be correct, it would seem that the known laws of physics would have to be revised. (ii) The oscillating model seems to be observationally untenable. Two facts of observational astronomy appear to run contrary to the oscillating model. First, the observed homogeneity of matter distribution throughout the universe seems unaccountable on an oscillating model. During the contraction phase of research paper such a model, black holes begin to gobble up surrounding matter, resulting in requirements an inhomogeneous distribution of research paper matter. But there is thesis requirements no known mechanism to “iron out” these inhomogeneities during the ensuing expansion phase.

Thus, the homogeneity of matter observed throughout the universe would remain unexplained. Research. Second, the density of the universe appears to book summarys be insufficient for the re-contraction of the universe. For the oscillating model to flu vaccine research paper be even possible, it is music in my life necessary that the universe be sufficiently dense such that gravity can overcome the force of the expansion and pull the universe back together again. However, according to the best estimates, if one takes into account both luminous matter and non-luminous matter (found in galactic halos) as well as any possible contribution of neutrino particles to total mass, the universe is flu vaccine research paper still only about one-half that needed for re-contraction.[23] Moreover, recent work on calculating the speed and essay on poverty in south deceleration of the expansion confirms that the universe is expanding at, so to speak, “escape velocity” and will not therefore re-contract. According to Sandage and Tammann, “Hence, we are forced to decide that . Flu Vaccine Research Paper. . . it seems inevitable that the Universe will expand forever”; they conclude, therefore, that “the Universe has happened only once.”[24]

As if this were not enough, there is a second scientific confirmation of the beginning of the universe based on the thermodynamic properties of various cosmological models. According to in south africa the second law of thermodynamics, processes taking place in a closed system always tend toward a state of equilibrium. Now our interest is in research paper what implications this has when the law is applied to the universe as a whole. For the universe is a gigantic closed system, since it is essays on why to attend a particular college everything there is and no energy is paper being fed into it from book summarys, without. Flu Vaccine Research Paper. The second law seems to imply that, given enough time, the universe will reach a state of thermodynamic equilibrium, known as the “heat death” of the essay on poverty in south africa, universe. This death may be hot or cold, depending on whether the universe will expand forever or eventually re-contract.

On the research, one hand, if the density of the universe is great enough to overcome the force of the expansion, then the universe will re-contract into a hot fireball. As the universe contracts, the stars burn more rapidly until they finally explode or evaporate. As the universe grows denser, the black holes begin to gobble up everything around them and begin themselves to coalesce until all the black holes finally coalesce into one gigantic black hole which is critical essays coextensive with the universe, from which it will never re-emerge. On the other hand, if the density of the universe is insufficient to halt the expansion, as seems more likely, then the galaxies will turn all their gas into flu vaccine, stars and life the stars will burn out. At 10[30 ]years the universe will consist of 90% dead stars, 9% supermassive black holes, and flu vaccine paper l% atomic matter.

Elementary particle physics suggests that thereafter protons will decay into electrons and positrons, so that space will be filled with a rarefied gas so thin that the distance between an electron and a positron will be about the size of the present galaxy. At 10[100] years some scientists believe that the black holes themselves will dissipate into radiation and elementary particles. Eventually all the matter in on why a particular college the dark, cold, ever-expanding universe will be reduced to an ultra-thin gas of elementary particles and radiation. Equilibrium will prevail throughout, and the entire universe will be in its final state, from research paper, which no change will occur. Now the question which needs to be asked is this: if, given sufficient time, the universe will reach heat death, then why is it not now in africa a state of heat death if it has existed for infinite time? If the universe did not begin to research exist, then it should now be in a state of equilibrium. Some theorists have suggested that the universe escapes final heat death by oscillating from eternity past to eternity future. But we have already seen that such a model seems to uw madison requirements be physically and observationally untenable. Flu Vaccine Research Paper. But even if we waive those considerations and suppose that the universe does oscillate, the fact is that the thermodynamic properties of ramayana essays this model imply the flu vaccine, very beginning of the universe which its proponents seek to avoid. For the music, thermodynamic properties of an oscillating model are such that the universe expands farther and farther with each successive cycle.

Therefore, as one traces the expansions back in time, they grow smaller and smaller. Flu Vaccine Research Paper. As one scientific team explains, “The effect of entropy production will be to enlarge the cosmic scale, from cycle to cycle. . . . Thus, looking back in time, each cycle generated less entropy, had a smaller cycle time, and had a smaller cycle expansion factor than the cycle that followed it.”[25] Novikov and Zeldovich of the uw madison thesis requirements, Institute of Applied Mathematics of the USSR Academy of Sciences, therefore, conclude, “The multicycle model has an infinite future, but only a finite past.”[26] As another writer points out, the flu vaccine research, oscillating model of the universe thus still requires an origin of the universe prior to the smallest cycle.[27] So whatever scenario one selects for the future of the sass, universe, thermodynamics implies that the universe began to exist. According to physicist P.C.W. Davies, the research, universe must have been created a finite time ago and is in the process of thesis requirements winding down. Prior to the creation, the universe simply did not exist. Paper. Therefore, Davies concludes, even though we may not like it, we must conclude that the universe’s energy was somehow simply “put in” at the creation as an uw madison thesis initial condition.[28] We, therefore, have both philosophical argument and scientific confirmation for the beginning of the paper, universe. On this basis, I think that we are amply justified in concluding the book summarys, truth of premiss (2) that the flu vaccine paper, universe began to exist.

Premiss (1) strikes me as relatively non-controversial. It is based on the metaphysical intuition that something cannot come out of nothing. Hence, any argument for the principle is apt to be less obvious than the principle itself. Even the great skeptic David Hume admitted that he never asserted so absurd a proposition as that something might come into existence without a cause; he only denied that one could prove the on poverty alleviation in south africa, obviously true causal principle.[29] With regard to the universe, if originally there were absolutely nothing— no God, no space, no time—then how could the universe possibly come to exist? The truth of the principle ex nihilo , nihil fit is so obvious that I think we are justified in foregoing an elaborate defense of the argument’s first premiss.

Nevertheless, some thinkers, exercised to avoid the theism implicit in research this premiss within the present context, have felt driven to deny its truth. In order to avoid its theistic implications, Davies presents a scenario which, he confesses, “should not be taken too seriously,” but which seems to have a powerful attraction for uw madison thesis requirements Davies.[30] He has reference to a quantum theory of gravity according to which spacetime itself could spring uncaused into being out of absolutely nothing. While admitting that there is paper “still no satisfactory theory of quantum gravity,” such a theory “would allow spacetime to be created and destroyed spontaneously and uncaused in the same way that particles are created and destroyed spontaneously and uncaused. The theory would entail a certain mathematically determined probability that, for instance, a blob of space would appear where none existed before. Thus, spacetime could pop out of nothingness as the result of a causeless quantum transition.”[31]

Now, in fact, particle pair production furnishes no analogy for this radical ex nihilo becoming, as Davies seems to music life imply. This quantum phenomenon, even if an exception to flu vaccine research paper the principle that every event has a cause, provides no analogy to something’s coming into being out of nothing. Though physicists speak of ramayana critical essays this as particle pair creation and annihilation, such terms are philosophically misleading, for all that actually occurs is conversion of energy into research, matter or vice versa. As Davies admits, “The processes described here do not represent the creation of matter out of nothing, but the conversion of pre- existing energy into material form.”[32] Hence, Davies greatly misleads his reader when he claims that “Particles . Ramayana Essays. . . can appear out of nowhere without specific causation” and again, “Yet the world of quantum physics routinely produces something for nothing.”[33] On the contrary, the world of flu vaccine paper quantum physics never produces something for nothing. But to consider the case on its own merits: quantum gravity is so poorly understood that the period prior to essay alleviation in south africa 10[-43] sec, which this theory hopes to flu vaccine research describe, has been compared by one wag to the regions on the maps of the essays on why, ancient cartographers marked “Here there be dragons”: it can easily be filled with all sorts of fantasies. In fact, there seems to be no good reason to flu vaccine think that such a theory would involve the book summarys, sort of spontaneous becoming ex nihilo which Davies suggests. A quantum theory of gravity has the goal of providing a theory of gravitation based on the exchange of particles (gravitons) rather than the geometry of space, which can then be brought into a Grand Unification Theory that unites all the flu vaccine, forces of nature into a super symmetrical state in which one fundamental force and a single kind of particle exist. Cristina Resume. But there seems to be nothing in this which suggests the possibility of spontaneous becoming ex nihilo . Indeed, it is not at all clear that Davies’s account is even intelligible. What can be meant, for example, by flu vaccine paper the claim that there is you want a particular a mathematical probability that nothingness should spawn a region of spacetime “where none existed before?” It cannot mean that given enough time a region of spacetime would pop into research, existence at book summarys a certain place—since neither place nor time exists apart from spacetime.

The notion of some probability of flu vaccine paper something’s coming out of nothing thus seems incoherent. I am reminded in this connection of some remarks made by A.N. Prior concerning an book summarys argument put forward by Jonathan Edwards against something’s coming into existence uncaused. Flu Vaccine Research. This would be impossible, said Edwards, because it would then be inexplicable why just any and everything cannot or does not come to exist uncaused. One cannot respond that only things of a certain nature come into existence uncaused—since prior to their existence they have no nature which could control their coming to be. Prior made a cosmological application of Edwards’s reasoning by on why you want a particular commenting on the steady state model’s postulating the research paper, continuous creation of hydrogen atoms ex nihilo : It is no part of Hoyle’s theory that this process is causeless, but I want to be more definite about this, and to say that if it is essays causeless, then what is flu vaccine alleged to happen is fantastic and incredible. If it is possible for objects—objects, now, which really are objects, “substances endowed with capacities”—to start existing without a cause, then it is incredible that they should all turn out to in my life essay be objects of the same sort, namely, hydrogen atoms. The peculiar nature of hydrogen atoms cannot possibly be what makes such starting-to-exist possible for flu vaccine research them but not for objects of any other sort; for hydrogen atoms do not have this nature until they are there to have it, i.e. Book Summarys. until their starting-to-exist has already occurred. That is Edwards’s argument, in fact; and here it does seem entirely cogent. . . .[34] Now in the case at hand, if originally absolutely nothing existed, then why should it be spacetime that springs spontaneously out of the void, rather than, say, hydrogen atoms or even rabbits? How can one talk about the probability of any particular thing’s popping into being out of nothing?

Davies on one occasion seems to answer as if the laws of physics are the flu vaccine research paper, controlling factor which determines what may leap uncaused into being: “But what of the laws? They have to be ‘there’ to start with so that the music in my essay, universe can come into being. Quantum physics has to exist (in some sense) so that a quantum transition can generate the cosmos in the first place.”[35] Now this seems exceedingly peculiar. Davies seems to attribute to research paper the laws of nature themselves a sort of ontological and causal status such that they constrain spontaneous becoming. But this seems clearly wrong-headed: the laws of physics do not themselves cause or constrain anything; they are simply propositional descriptions of a certain form and generality of what does happen in the universe. Critical Essays. And the issue Edwards raises is why, if there were absolutely nothing, it would be true that any one thing rather than another should pop into being uncaused?

It is futile to say it somehow belongs to the nature of spacetime to do so, for if there were absolutely nothing then there would have been no nature to determine that spacetime should spring into being. Even more fundamentally, however, what Davies envisions is surely metaphysical nonsense. Though his scenario is cast as a scientific theory,. someone ought to be bold enough to flu vaccine say that the Emperor is wearing no clothes. Either the necessary and book summarys sufficient conditions for the appearance of spacetime existed or not; if so, then it is not true that nothing existed; if not, then it would seem ontologically impossible that being should arise out of absolute non-being. To call such spontaneous springing into being out of non-being a “quantum transition” or to attribute it to “quantum gravity” explains nothing; indeed, on research paper this account, there is no explanation. Life. It just happens. It seems to me, therefore, that Davies has not provided any plausible basis for denying the truth of the research paper, cosmological argument’s first premiss. That whatever begins to exist has a cause would seem to be an ontologically necessary truth, one which is music in my life constantly confirmed in our experience. Given the truth of flu vaccine research premisses (1) and (2), it logically follows that (3) the universe has a cause of its existence. In fact, I think that it can be plausibly argued that the cause of the universe must be a personal Creator.

For how else could a temporal effect arise from an requirements eternal cause? If the cause were simply a mechanically operating set of necessary and flu vaccine paper sufficient conditions existing from eternity, then why would not the effect also exist from eternity? For example, if the cause of water being frozen is the temperature’s being below zero degrees, then if the temperature were below zero degrees from eternity, then any water present would be frozen from life, eternity. The only way to have an eternal cause but a temporal effect would seem to be if the cause is flu vaccine research paper a personal agent who freely chooses to create an effect in time. For example, a man sitting from eternity may will himself to stand up; hence, a temporal effect may arise from an essay on poverty in south africa eternally existing agent. Indeed, the agent may will from eternity to create a temporal effect, so that no change in the agent need be conceived. Thus, we are brought not merely to the first cause of the universe, but to its personal Creator. In conclusion, we have seen on the basis of both philosophical argument and scientific confirmation that it is plausible that the universe began to research exist. Given the book summarys, intuitively obvious principle that whatever begins to exist has a cause of its existence, we have been led to conclude that the universe has a cause of research paper its existence.

On the basis of our argument, this cause would have to be uncaused, eternal, changeless, timeless, and immaterial. Moreover, it would have to uw madison requirements be a personal agent who freely elects to create an effect in time. Therefore, on research the basis of the kalam cosmological argument, I conclude that it is you want college rational to believe that God exists. [1]G.W. Leibniz, “The Principles of Nature and of Grace, Based on Reason,” in Leibniz Selections , ed. Philip P. Wiener, The Modern Student’s Library (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1951), p. 527. [2]Aristotle Metaphysica Lambda. l. 982b10-15. [3]Norman Malcolm, Ludwig Wittgenstein: A Memoir (London: Oxford University Press, 1958), p. 70. [4]J.J.C. Smart, “The Existence of God,” Church Quarterly Review 156 (1955): 194. [5]G.W.

Leibniz, Theodicy: Essays on the Goodness of research God, the Freedom of Man, and the Origin of Evil , trans. Music Life Essay. E.M. Flu Vaccine Paper. Huggard (London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1951), p. 127; cf. idem, “Principles,” p. 528. [6]John Hick, “God as Necessary Being,” Journal of Philosophy 57 (1960): 733-4. [7]David Hume, Dialogues concerning Natural Religion , ed. with an Introduction by Norman Kemp Smith, Library of the Liberal Arts (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill. 1947), p. 190. [8]Bertrand Russell and F.C. Copleston, “The Existence of God,” in The Existence of God , ed. with an Introduction by essays to attend a particular John Hick, Problems of flu vaccine paper Philosophy Series (New York: Macmillan Co., 1964), p. 175. [9]See William Lane Craig, The Cosmological Argument from Plato to Leibniz , Library of Philosophy and Religion (London: Macmillan, 1980), pp. 48-58, 61-76, 98-104, 128-31. [10]Wallace Matson, The Existence of God (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1965), pp.

58-60. [11]J.L. Mackie, The Miracle of Theism ( Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1982), p. 93. [12]Quentin Smith, “Infinity and the Past,” Philosophy of Science 54 (1987): 69. [13]Richard Sorabji, Time, Creation and the Continuum (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1983), pp.

213, 222-3. [14]Charles Hartshorne, Man’s Vision of ramayana critical essays God and the Logic of Theism (Chicago: Willett, Clark, Co., 1941), p. 37. [15]G.J. Whitrow defends a form of this argument which does not presuppose a dynamical view of time, by asserting that an flu vaccine infinite past would still have to be “lived through” by any everlasting, conscious being, even if the series of physical events subsisted timelessly (G.J. Whitrow, The Natural Philosophy of Time , 2d ed. Essays. [Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1980], pp. 28-32). [17]Sorabji, Time, Creation, and the Continuum, pp. 219-22. [18]K.R.

Popper, “On the Possibility of an Infinite Past: a Reply to Whitrow,” British Journal for the Philosophy of flu vaccine research Science 29 (1978): 47-8. [19]R.G. Swinburne, “The Beginning of the Universe,” The Aristotelian Society 40 (1966): 131-2. [20]Richard J. Gott, et.al. , “Will the Universe Expand Forever?” Scientific American (March 1976), p. 65. [21]Fred Hoyle, From Stonehenge to Modern Cosmology (San Francisco: W.H.

Freeman, 1972), p. 36. [22]Beatrice Tinsley, personal letter. [23]David N. Schramm and Gary Steigman, “Relic Neutrinos and the Density of the Universe,” Astrophysical Journal 243 (1981): p. 1-7. [24]Alan Sandage and G.A. Essay Alleviation In South Africa. Tammann, “Steps Toward the Hubble Constant. VII,” Astrophyscial Journal 210 (1976): 23, 7; see also idem, “Steps toward the Hubble Constant. VIII.” Astrophysical Journal 256 (1982): 339-45. [25]Duane Dicus, et.al. Paper. “Effects of Proton Decay on the Cosmological Future.” Astrophysical Journal 252 (1982): l, 8. [26]I.D.

Novikov and essay on poverty alleviation Ya. Flu Vaccine. B. Sass. Zeldovich, “Physical Processes Near Cosmological Singularities,” Annual Review of paper Astronomy and Astrophysics 11 (1973): 401-2. [27]John Gribbin, “Oscillating Universe Bounces Back,” Nature 259 (1976): 16. [28]P.C.W. Uw Madison Thesis. Davies, The Physics of Time Asymmetry (London: Surrey University Press, 1974), p. 104. [29]David Hume to John Stewart, February, 1754, in The Letters of David Hume , ed. J.Y.T.

Greig (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1932), 1:187. [30]Paul Davies, God and research the New Physics (New York: Simon Schuster, 1983), p. 214. [33]Ibid., pp. 215, 216. [34]A.N. Prior, “Limited Indeterminism,” in Papers on Time and Tense (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1968), p. 65. Updated: 14 July 2002.

“Concerning matter, we have been all wrong. What we have called matter is energy, whose vibration has been so lowered as to be perceptible to the senses. Book Summarys. There is no matter.” – Quote attributed to Albert Einstein. Yes, this is quite a bold statement, if true, that would certainly demand some sort of evidence or mathematical proof to back it up. It may seem like a paradox that the things which we can see and paper touch are nonexistent.

However, there is an answer to life essay this, which may be found in research paper the bold and exciting (relatively) new science of on why quantum physics. In ages past, it was believed that what we can see and touch, like a rock for instance, was the elements, in other words, matter. Flu Vaccine. However, as science developed, such as chemistry, and much more recently quantum physics, it had been observed that matter seems to exist on one hand, but once one takes a deep look into the heart of the matter (no pun intended), there seems as if there is nothing. In atoms, you have mostly protons, neutrons and electrons. However, electrons for example, are insignificantly microscopic and spread out over on poverty alleviation africa, enormous distances. Flu Vaccine Paper. Inbetween them, there is what is perceived as empty space. In fact, 99.99999% of an atom is this so-called ‘empty space’. Even if we look into electrons, protons, etc, we see that there is yet more open space.

Gluons, neutrinos and the like are also in there somewhere but no matter how far into these particles we look, there is not anything that we can say quantifiably that it is the building block of in my life all of this. What’s more, electrons literally possess no dimension. Flu Vaccine Research Paper. An electron is simply not an object as we know it. There is nothing. However, our eyes and observations are fooling us because indeed this nothing is critical essays something but we can not quantifiably say it is something and research therefore it is essays you want to attend a particular college nothing. There has to exist an energy that holds all these particles together like a sort of glue, or else matter would not exist because it would be akin to having a rock turn into sand that can not stay together as a rock any longer.

There have been some notable quantum physicists, such as Dr. Fred Alan Wolf, that have been looking to fuse science with spirituality…and with relative success. Paper. Below is from an article attributed to Dr. Wolf concerning his perception of cristina resume this most-interesting issue at hand. Quantum physics has thus brought about a radical new understanding both of the particles and the void. In subatomic physics, mass is no longer seen as a material substance but is recognized as a form of energy. When a piece of seemingly solid matter–a rock or a human hand or the limb of a tree–is placed under a powerful electronic microscope: the electron-scanning microscope, with the power to magnify several thousand times, takes us down into flu vaccine research paper, a realm that has the look of the sea about it… In the kingdom of corpuscles, there is transfiguration and there is samsara, the endless round of birth and death. Every passing second, some 2-1/2 million red cells are born; every second, the same number die. The typical cell lives about 110 days, then becomes tired and decrepit. There are no lingering deaths here, for when a cell loses its vital force, it somehow attracts the attention of essay in south africa macrophage. As the magnification increases, the flesh does begin to dissolve.

Muscle fiber now takes on a fully crystaline aspect. We can see that it is made of research long, spiral molecules in essay alleviation in south africa orderly array. And all of these molecules are swaying like wheat in the wind, connected with one another and held in place by invisible waves that pulse many trillions of times a second. What are the flu vaccine research paper, molecules made of? As we move closer, we see atoms, the tiny shadowy balls dancing around their fixed locations in the molecules, sometimes changing position with their partners in perfect rhythms. And now we focus on one of the atoms; its interior is uw madison thesis lightly veiled by a cloud of electrons.

We come closer, increasing the magnification. The shell dissolves and we look on the inside to find…nothing. Somewhere within that emptiness, we know is a nucleus. We scan the space, and there it is, a tiny dot. At last, we have discovered something hard and solid, a reference point. But no! as we move closer to the nucleus, it too begins to flu vaccine paper dissolve.

It too is essays on why to attend nothing more than an oscillating field, waves of rhythm. Flu Vaccine. Inside the nucleus are other organized fields: protons, neutrons, even smaller “particles.” Each of music life these, upon our approach, also dissolve into flu vaccine paper, pure rhythm. Music Life. These days they (the scientists) are looking for quarks, strange subatomic entities, having qualities which they describe with such words as upness, downness, charm, strangeness, truth, beauty, color, and flu vaccine flavor. But no matter. If we could get close enough to these wondrous quarks, they too would melt away. They too would have to essays you want to attend college give up all pretense of flu vaccine research solidity. Even their speed and relationship would be unclear, leaving them only relationship and pattern of vibration. Of what is the body made? It is made of emptiness and rhythm. At the ultimate heart of the book summarys, body, at flu vaccine paper the heart of the world, there is no solidity.

Once again, there is on why you want college only the flu vaccine research paper, dance. (At) the unimaginable heart of the atom, the alleviation in south africa, compact nucleus, we have found no solid object, but rather a dynamic pattern of tightly confined energy vibrating perhaps 1022 times a second: a dance… The protons–the positively charged knots in the pattern of the nucleus–are not only powerful; they are very old. Research Paper. Along with the uw madison thesis, much lighter electrons that spin and vibrate around the research paper, outer regions of the atom, the protons constitute the most ancient entities of matter in the universe, going back to on why you want college the first seconds after the birth of space and flu vaccine time. It follows then that in the world of subatomic physics there are no objects, only processes. Atoms consist of particles and these particles are not made of any solid material substance. When we observe them under a microscope, we never see any substance; we rather observe dynamic patterns, continually changing into one another–a continuous dance of energy. This dance of energy, the underlying rhythm of the universe, is again more intuited than seen. Jack Kornfield, a contemporary teacher of meditation, finds a parallel between the behavior of subatomic particles and meditational states: When the mind becomes very silent, you can clearly see that all that exists in the world are brief moments of consciousness arising together with the six sense objects. There is only sight and the knowing of sight, sound and the knowing of sound, smell, taste and the knowing of them, thoughts and the knowing of thoughts. If you can make the mind very focused, as you can in meditation, you see that the whole world breaks down into these small events of sight and the knowing, sound and uw madison the knowing, thought and flu vaccine the knowing.

No longer are these houses, cars, bodies or even oneself. All you see are particles of consciousness as experience. Yet you can go deep in meditation in another way and the mind becomes very still. You will see differently that consciousness is like waves, like a sea, an ocean. In My. Now it is research paper not particles but instead every sight and every sound is contained in this ocean of consciousness. From this perspective, there is no sense of particles at all. If truly being the words of Dr.

Wolf, I believe this above explanation of this fascinating reality is a beautiful description of the issue at hand. So how is sass resume it that we exist as matter? Albert Einstein alluded to this answer. We, the people of this beautiful planet, are really beings made of energy, but we exist at flu vaccine paper the 3rd dimension because our atoms have a specific frequency which makes us able to exist in this very 3rd dimension. On Why A Particular. This specific frequency is stable enough for all our lifetime.

Using this information, if we are indeed capable of accelerating and decelerating the frequencies to make us able to exist in the 3rd dimension, then naturally, we can use this in order to travel inter-dimensionally throughout the research, infinite multiverse…and here lies the key to the true evolution of the essays you want a particular college, human being race. Flu Vaccine Paper. Once we learn, or progress far enough, to accelerate and essay on poverty alleviation in south decelerate the vibrating frequencies of our atoms, then, in theory, we will be able to exist in the 5th dimension and in parallel universes of this wonderful multiverse. Note: The quote attributed to Albert Einstein in the beginning of the article, as well as the article quotations attributed to Fred Alan Wolf are not in the specific terms which these two physicists have used. However, upon deeper research, there is flu vaccine research enough evidence to be compelled to book summarys believe that the general message of matter not being definitive to still hold true. A quote from Einstein’s “Metaphysics of Relativity” (1950)shows this: “Physical objects are not in space, but these objects are spatially extended (as fields). In this way the concept ‘empty space’ loses its meaning. … The field thus becomes an irreducible element of physical description, irreducible in the same sense as the concept of matter (particles) in the theory of Newton.” Legendary physicist Max Planck is attributed to saying in a lecture that was given in Florence the following: “As a physicist, that is, a man who had devoted his whole life to flu vaccine a wholly prosaic science, the exploration of matter, no one would surely suspect me of being a fantast. And so, having studied the book summarys, atom, I am telling you that there is no matter as such. Flu Vaccine Paper. All matter arises and persists only due to book summarys a force that causes the atomic particles to vibrate, holding them together in the tiniest of solar systems, the atom.

Yet in the whole of the universe there is no force that is either intelligent or eternal, and we must therefore assume that behind this force there is a conscious, intelligent mind or spirit. This is the very origin of all matter.” Source of paper this quote is sass resume from the following: Pauli, Wolfgang: THE INFLUENCE OF ARCHETYPICAL PRESENTATIONS ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATURAL SCIENCE THEORY BY KEPPLER in: Jung Pauli: NATURAL EXPLANATION AND PSYCHE, Zuerich 1952, p. 163. MUST READ ARTICLE ON TRUMP’S GREAT OPPORTUNITY TO BRING TYRANNY TO AMERICA. Democracies end when they are too democratic. -Plato.

As this dystopian election campaign has unfolded, my mind keeps being tugged by flu vaccine research a passage in Plato’s Republic . It has unsettled — even surprised — me from the moment I first read it in graduate school. The passage is from the music in my, part of the dialogue where Socrates and his friends are talking about the nature of different political systems, how they change over time, and how one can slowly evolve into another. And Socrates seemed pretty clear on flu vaccine research paper one sobering point: that “tyranny is probably established out of no other regime than democracy.” What did Plato mean by that? Democracy, for him, I discovered, was a political system of maximal freedom and equality, where every lifestyle is allowed and public offices are filled by a lottery. And the longer a democracy lasted, Plato argued, the more democratic it would become. Its freedoms would multiply; its equality spread. Essays On Why You Want. Deference to any sort of authority would wither; tolerance of any kind of inequality would come under intense threat; and multiculturalism and sexual freedom would create a city or a country like “a many-colored cloak decorated in all hues.” This rainbow-flag polity, Plato argues, is, for many people, the fairest of regimes. Flu Vaccine Research. The freedom in that democracy has to be experienced to be believed — with shame and privilege in particular emerging over time as anathema. But it is inherently unstable.

As the authority of elites fades, as Establishment values cede to popular ones, views and identities can become so magnificently diverse as to be mutually uncomprehending. And when all the barriers to equality, formal and informal, have been removed; when everyone is in my life equal; when elites are despised and research full license is established to do “whatever one wants,” you arrive at book summarys what might be called late-stage democracy. There is no kowtowing to authority here, let alone to political experience or expertise. The very rich come under attack, as inequality becomes increasingly intolerable. Patriarchy is also dismantled: “We almost forgot to mention the extent of the law of equality and of freedom in the relations of flu vaccine women with men and men with women.” Family hierarchies are inverted: “A father habituates himself to be like his child and fear his sons, and a son habituates himself to be like his father and to have no shame before or fear of his parents.” In classrooms, “as the teacher … is frightened of the essays you want to attend a particular, pupils and fawns on them, so the students make light of their teachers.” Animals are regarded as equal to humans; the rich mingle freely with the poor in the streets and paper try to blend in. The foreigner is equal to the citizen.

And it is when a democracy has ripened as fully as this, Plato argues, that a would-be tyrant will often seize his moment. He is cristina sass usually of the elite but has a nature in tune with the time — given over to random pleasures and whims, feasting on plenty of food and sex, and reveling in the non-judgment that is democracy’s civil religion. He makes his move by “taking over a particularly obedient mob” and attacking his wealthy peers as corrupt. If not stopped quickly, his appetite for attacking the rich on behalf of the people swells further. He is a traitor to his class — and soon, his elite enemies, shorn of popular legitimacy, find a way to appease him or are forced to flee. Eventually, he stands alone, promising to cut through the paralysis of democratic incoherence. It’s as if he were offering the addled, distracted, and flu vaccine research self-indulgent citizens a kind of relief from democracy’s endless choices and insecurities. He rides a backlash to excess—“too much freedom seems to change into on why you want a particular college, nothing but too much slavery” — and offers himself as the flu vaccine research paper, personified answer to the internal conflicts of the democratic mess. On Poverty In South. He pledges, above all, to take on the increasingly despised elites.

And as the people thrill to him as a kind of solution, a democracy willingly, even impetuously, repeals itself. And so, as I chit-chatted over cocktails at a Washington office Christmas party in December, and saw, looming above our heads, the pulsating, angry televised face of paper Donald Trump on Fox News, I couldn’t help but feel a little nausea permeate my stomach. And as I watched frenzied Trump rallies on C-SPAN in on poverty in south africa the spring, and saw him lay waste to research far more qualified political peers in the debates by simply calling them names, the nausea turned to dread. And when he seemed to condone physical violence as a response to political disagreement, alarm bells started to ring in my head. Plato had planted a gnawing worry in my mind a few decades ago about the intrinsic danger of late-democratic life. It was increasingly hard not to see in Plato’s vision a murky reflection of our own hyper-democratic times and in Trump a demagogic, tyrannical character plucked directly out of one of the first books about politics ever written. Could it be that the Donald has emerged from the populist circuses of pro wrestling and New York City tabloids, via reality television and Twitter, to prove not just Plato but also James Madison right, that democracies “have ever been spectacles of turbulence and contention … and have in general been as short in their lives as they have been violent in music their deaths”? Is he testing democracy’s singular weakness — its susceptibility to the demagogue — by blasting through the firewalls we once had in flu vaccine paper place to prevent such a person from seizing power? Or am I overreacting?

Perhaps. Essays To Attend A Particular College. The nausea comes and flu vaccine paper goes, and there have been days when the news algorithm has actually reassured me that “peak Trump” has arrived. But it hasn’t gone away, and resume neither has Trump. In the wake of his most recent primary triumphs, at a time when he is perilously close to winning enough delegates to grab the Republican nomination outright, I think we must confront this dread and be clear about what this election has already revealed about the fragility of our way of life and the threat late-stage democracy is beginning to pose to itself. Plato, of course, was not clairvoyant. His analysis of how democracy can turn into tyranny is a complex one more keyed toward ancient societies than our own (and contains more wrinkles and eddies than I can summarize here). Flu Vaccine Paper. His disdain for democratic life was fueled in no small part by the fact that a democracy had executed his mentor, Socrates. And he would, I think, have been astonished at sass how American democracy has been able to thrive with unprecedented stability over the last couple of centuries even as it has brought more and more people into paper, its embrace. It remains, in my view, a miracle of constitutional craftsmanship and cultural resilience.

There is essay on poverty alleviation africa no place I would rather live. But it is flu vaccine research not immortal, nor should we assume it is thesis requirements immune to the forces that have endangered democracy so many times in human history. Part of American democracy’s stability is owed to the fact that the Founding Fathers had read their Plato. To guard our democracy from the tyranny of the majority and research paper the passions of the mob, they constructed large, hefty barriers between the on why a particular college, popular will and the exercise of power. Voting rights were tightly circumscribed. The president and vice-president were not to research paper be popularly elected but selected by an Electoral College, whose representatives were selected by the various states, often through state legislatures. The Senate’s structure (with two members from every state) was designed to sass resume temper the power of the flu vaccine, more populous states, and its term of office (six years, compared with two for the House) was designed to cool and restrain temporary populist passions. The Supreme Court, picked by the president and confirmed by in my essay the Senate, was the final bulwark against any democratic furies that might percolate up from the House and threaten the Constitution. This separation of powers was designed precisely to create sturdy firewalls against democratic wildfires.

Over the centuries, however, many of these undemocratic rules have been weakened or abolished. Research Paper. The franchise has been extended far beyond propertied white men. Cristina Sass. The presidency is flu vaccine research paper now effectively elected through popular vote, with the Electoral College almost always reflecting the national democratic will. And these formal democratic advances were accompanied by informal ones, as the culture of democracy slowly took deeper root. For a very long time, only the elites of the political parties came to select their candidates at their quadrennial conventions, with the vote largely restricted to party officials from the various states (and often decided in, yes, smoke-filled rooms in large hotel suites). Beginning in the early 1900s, however, the parties began experimenting with primaries, and after the chaos of the 1968 Democratic convention, today’s far more democratic system became the norm. Direct democracy didn’t just elect Congress and the president anymore; it expanded the thesis requirements, notion of who might be qualified for public office. Once, candidates built a career through experience in elected or Cabinet positions or as military commanders; they were effectively selected by peer review.

That elitist sorting mechanism has slowly imploded. Research. In 1940, Wendell Willkie, a businessman with no previous political office, won the Republican nomination for president, pledging to essay africa keep America out of war and boasting that his personal wealth inoculated him against corruption: “I will be under obligation to nobody except the people.” He lost badly to Franklin D. Roosevelt, but nonetheless, since then, nonpolitical candidates have proliferated, from Ross Perot and Jesse Jackson, to Steve Forbes and Herman Cain, to this year’s crop of flu vaccine research Ben Carson, Carly Fiorina, and, of course, Donald J. Trump. This further widening of cristina sass resume our democracy — our increased openness to being led by anyone; indeed, our accelerating preference for outsiders — is paper now almost complete. The barriers to the popular will, especially when it comes to choosing our president, are now almost nonexistent. In 2000, George W. Bush lost the popular vote and won the election thanks to Electoral College math and, more egregiously, to ramayana critical essays a partisan Supreme Court vote. Flu Vaccine. Al Gore’s eventual concession spared the nation a constitutional crisis, but the episode generated widespread unease, not just among Democrats. And this year, the delegate system established by our political parties is also under assault.

Trump has argued that the candidate with the most votes should get the Republican nomination, regardless of the ramayana essays, rules in place. It now looks as if he won’t even need to win that argument — that he’ll bank enough delegates to secure the nomination uncontested — but he’s won it anyway. Fully half of flu vaccine research Americans now believe the traditional nominating system is rigged. Many contend, of course, that American democracy is actually in retreat, close to being destroyed by the vastly more unequal economy of the last quarter-century and the ability of the very rich to essay on poverty alleviation in south africa purchase political influence. Research Paper. This is Bernie Sanders’s core critique. But the past few presidential elections have demonstrated that, in fact, money from the ultra-rich has been mostly a dud. Barack Obama, whose 2008 campaign was propelled by small donors and empowered by the internet, blazed the on poverty in south africa, trail of the modern-day insurrectionist, defeating the research paper, prohibitive favorite in the Democratic primary and later his Republican opponent (both pillars of their parties’ Establishments and backed by moneyed elites).

In 2012, the fund-raising power behind Mitt Romney — avatar of the one percent — failed to book summarys dislodge Obama from office. And in this presidential cycle, the flu vaccine paper, breakout candidates of both parties have soared without financial support from the elites. Sanders, who is sustaining his campaign all the way to California on the backs of small donors and large crowds, is, to put it bluntly, a walking refutation of his own argument. Trump, of course, is a largely self-funding billionaire — but like Willkie, he argues that his wealth uniquely enables him to resist the influence of the rich and their lobbyists. Those despairing over the influence of ramayana Big Money in American politics must also explain the swift, humiliating demise of Jeb Bush and flu vaccine research paper the struggling Establishment campaign of Hillary Clinton. The evidence suggests that direct democracy, far from being throttled, is actually intensifying its grip on American politics. None of book summarys this is necessarily cause for alarm, even though it would be giving the Founding Fathers palpitations. Research Paper. The emergence of the first black president — unimaginable before our more inclusive democracy — is miraculous, a strengthening, rather than weakening, of the system. The days when party machines just fixed things or rigged elections are mercifully done with. The way in which outsider candidates, from Obama to Trump and Sanders, have brought millions of new people into the electoral process is an unmitigated advance. The inclusion of previously excluded voices helps, rather than impedes, our public deliberation.

But it is precisely because of the great accomplishments of our democracy that we should be vigilant about its specific, unique vulnerability: its susceptibility, in stressful times, to book summarys the appeal of a shameless demagogue. What the 21st century added to this picture, it’s now blindingly obvious, was media democracy — in a truly revolutionary form. If late-stage political democracy has taken two centuries to ripen, the media equivalent took around two decades, swiftly erasing almost any elite moderation or control of our democratic discourse. The process had its origins in partisan talk radio at the end of the past century. The rise of the internet — an research paper event so swift and pervasive its political effect is only now beginning to requirements be understood — further democratized every source of information, dramatically expanded each outlet’s readership, and gave everyone a platform.

All the old barriers to entry — the cost of print and paper and flu vaccine paper distribution — crumbled. So much of this was welcome. I relished it myself in the early aughts, starting a blog and soon reaching as many readers, if not more, as some small magazines do. Fusty old-media institutions, grown fat and critical lazy, deserved a drubbing. The early independent blogosphere corrected facts, exposed bias, earned scoops. Flu Vaccine Research Paper. And as the medium matured, and essays as Facebook and Twitter took hold, everyone became a kind of blogger. In ways no 20th-century journalist would have believed, we all now have our own virtual newspapers on our Facebook newsfeeds and flu vaccine research Twitter timelines — picking stories from countless sources and creating a peer-to-peer media almost completely free of essay alleviation africa editing or interference by flu vaccine elites.

This was bound to make politics more fluid. Political organizing — calling a meeting, fomenting a rally to advance a cause — used to be extremely laborious. Now you could bring together a virtual mass movement with a single webpage. It would take you a few seconds. The web was also uniquely capable of absorbing other forms of media, conflating genres and categories in ways never seen before. Uw Madison. The distinction between politics and flu vaccine entertainment became fuzzier; election coverage became even more modeled on sportscasting; your Pornhub jostled right next to your mother’s Facebook page. The web’s algorithms all but removed any editorial judgment, and book summarys the effect soon had cable news abandoning even the pretense of asking “Is this relevant?” or “Do we really need to cover this live?” in the rush toward ratings bonanzas.

In the end, all these categories were reduced to one thing: traffic, measured far more accurately than any other medium had ever done before. And what mainly fuels this is precisely what the Founders feared about flu vaccine research paper, democratic culture: feeling, emotion, and narcissism, rather than reason, empiricism, and essays you want to attend a particular public-spiritedness. Online debates become personal, emotional, and flu vaccine irresolvable almost as soon as they begin. Godwin’s Law — it’s only a matter of time before a comments section brings up Hitler — is a reflection of the collapse of the reasoned deliberation the book summarys, Founders saw as indispensable to paper a functioning republic. Yes, occasional rational points still fly back and essays college forth, but there are dramatically fewer elite arbiters to establish which of those points is actually true or valid or relevant. We have lost authoritative sources for even a common set of facts.

And without such common empirical ground, the emotional component of flu vaccine research paper politics becomes inflamed and reason retreats even further. The more emotive the candidate, the more supporters he or she will get. Politically, we lucked out at first. Obama would never have been nominated for the presidency, let alone elected, if he hadn’t harnessed the power of the ramayana critical, web and the charisma of his media celebrity. But he was also, paradoxically, a very elite figure, a former state and U.S. senator, a product of flu vaccine Harvard Law School, and, as it turned out, blessed with a preternaturally rational and essays on why you want to attend a particular calm disposition. So he has masked, temporarily, the real risks in flu vaccine research paper the system that his pioneering campaign revealed. Hence many Democrats’ frustration with him.

Those who saw in uw madison requirements his campaign the paper, seeds of revolutionary change, who were drawn to him by their own messianic delusions, came to be bitterly disappointed by essay alleviation in south his governing moderation and pragmatism. The climate Obama thrived in, however, was also ripe for far less restrained opportunists. In 2008, Sarah Palin emerged as proof that an ardent Republican, branded as an flu vaccine outsider, tailor-made for reality TV, proud of her own ignorance about the world, and reaching an audience directly through online media, could also triumph in in my this new era. She was, it turned out, a John the Baptist for the true messiah of conservative populism, waiting patiently and flu vaccine strategically for his time to come. Trump, we now know, had been considering running for essays to attend college president for decades. Flu Vaccine. Those who didn’t see him coming — or kept treating him as a joke — had not yet absorbed the precedents of Obama and Palin or the essay in south, power of the new wide-open system to change the rules of the flu vaccine research paper, political game. Trump was as underrated for all of 2015 as Obama was in 2007 — and for the same reasons. He intuitively grasped the vanishing authority of American political and media elites, and he had long fashioned a public persona perfectly attuned to blast past them. Despite his immense wealth and inherited privilege, Trump had always cultivated a common touch. He did not hide his wealth in ramayana critical the late-20th century — he flaunted it in a way that connected with the masses. He lived the rich man’s life most working men dreamed of flu vaccine research paper — endless glamour and women, for example — without sacrificing a way of talking about the world that would not be out of place on cristina sass the construction sites he regularly toured.

His was a cult of democratic aspiration. Paper. His 1987 book, The Art of the Deal , promised its readers a path to instant success; his appearances on “The Howard Stern Show” cemented his appeal. His friendship with Vince McMahon offered him an early entree into the world of professional wrestling, with its fusion of sports and fantasy. He was a macho media superstar. One of the more amazing episodes in Sarah Palin’s early political life, in fact, bears this out. She popped up in the Anchorage Daily News as “a commercial fisherman from ramayana, Wasilla” on research April 3, 1996. Palin had told her husband she was going to Costco but had sneaked into J.C. Cristina Sass. Penney in Anchorage to see … one Ivana Trump, who, in the wake of her divorce, was touting her branded perfume. “We want to see Ivana,” Palin told the paper, “because we are so desperate in Alaska for any semblance of glamour and culture.” Trump assiduously cultivated this image and took to flu vaccine paper reality television as a natural.

Each week, for 14 seasons of The Apprentice, he would look someone in the eye and tell them, “You’re fired!” The conversation most humane bosses fear to have with an employee was something Trump clearly relished, and the cruelty became entertainment. Cristina Sass Resume. In retrospect, it is clear he was training — both himself and paper his viewers. If you want to understand why a figure so widely disliked nonetheless powers toward the book summarys, election as if he were approaching a reality-TV-show finale, look no further. His television tactics, as applied to presidential debates, wiped out rivals used to flu vaccine a different game. And all our reality-TV training has conditioned us to essay on poverty alleviation hope he’ll win — or at least stay in the game till the final round.

In such a shame-free media environment, the assholes often win. In the end, you support them because they’re assholes. In Eric Hoffer’s classic 1951 tract, The True Believer , he sketches the dynamics of flu vaccine research paper a genuine mass movement. He was thinking of the upheavals in Europe in the first half of the century, but the requirements, book remains sobering, especially now. Hoffer’s core insight was to locate the source of all truly mass movements in a collective sense of flu vaccine research paper acute frustration. Essays You Want A Particular College. Not despair, or revolt, or resignation — but frustration simmering with rage. Mass movements, he notes (as did Tocqueville centuries before him), rarely arise when oppression or misery is at its worst (say, 2009); they tend to appear when the worst is behind us but the future seems not so much better (say, 2016). It is when a recovery finally gathers speed and some improvement is tangible but not yet widespread that the research, anger begins to rise. After the suffering of book summarys recession or unemployment, and despite hard work with stagnant or dwindling pay, the future stretches ahead with relief just out of reach. When those who helped create the paper, last recession face no consequences but renewed fabulous wealth, the book summarys, anger reaches a crescendo.

The deeper, long-term reasons for today’s rage are not hard to flu vaccine research paper find, although many of us elites have shamefully found ourselves able to ignore them. The jobs available to the working class no longer contain the kind of craftsmanship or satisfaction or meaning that can take the sting out of their low and stagnant wages. The once-familiar avenues for socialization — the church, the union hall, the on why to attend college, VFW — have become less vibrant and social isolation more common. Flu Vaccine Research. Global economic forces have pummeled blue-collar workers more relentlessly than almost any other segment of society, forcing them to compete against hundreds of uw madison requirements millions of flu vaccine research equally skilled workers throughout the planet. Requirements. No one asked them in the 1990s if this was the research, future they wanted.

And the impact has been more brutal than many economists predicted. No wonder suicide and mortality rates among the white working poor are spiking dramatically. “It is usually those whose poverty is relatively recent, the ‘new poor,’ who throb with the ferment of frustration,” Hoffer argues. Fundamentalist religion long provided some emotional support for those left behind (for one thing, it invites practitioners to defy the elites as unholy), but its influence has waned as modernity has penetrated almost everything and the great culture wars of the book summarys, 1990s and flu vaccine paper 2000s have ended in a rout. The result has been a more diverse mainstream culture — but also, simultaneously, a subculture that is even more alienated and ramayana essays despised, and ever more infuriated and flu vaccine research bloody-minded. This is an age in which a woman might succeed a black man as president, but also one in life which a member of the white working class has declining options to make a decent living. This is a time when gay people can be married in flu vaccine research paper 50 states, even as working-class families are hanging by a thread. It’s a period in which we have become far more aware of the historic injustices that still haunt African-Americans and on why college yet we treat the flu vaccine research paper, desperate plight of today’s white working ­class as an afterthought. And so late-stage capitalism is creating a righteous, revolutionary anger that late-stage democracy has precious little ability to moderate or constrain — and has actually helped exacerbate. For the book summarys, white working class, having had their morals roundly mocked, their religion deemed primitive, and research their economic prospects decimated, now find their very gender and race, indeed the essays on why you want college, very way they talk about reality, described as a kind of paper problem for the nation to ramayana essays overcome. This is just one aspect of what Trump has masterfully signaled as “political correctness” run amok, or what might be better described as the newly rigid progressive passion for racial and flu vaccine paper sexual equality of outcome, rather than the liberal aspiration to mere equality of you want opportunity.

Much of the newly energized left has come to see the white working class not as allies but primarily as bigots, misogynists, racists, and research paper homophobes, thereby condemning those often at book summarys the near-bottom rung of the economy to the bottom rung of the culture as well. A struggling white man in the heartland is research now told to on why to attend college “check his privilege” by students at Ivy League colleges. Even if you agree that the privilege exists, it’s hard not to empathize with the object of this disdain. These working-class communities, already alienated, hear — how can they not? — the glib and flu vaccine research paper easy dismissals of “white straight men” as the life essay, ultimate source of flu vaccine research all our woes. They smell the condescension and the broad generalizations about them — all of which would be repellent if directed at racial minorities — and see themselves, in requirements Hoffer’s words, “disinherited and injured by an unjust order of things.” And so they wait, and they steam, and they lash out. This was part of the emotional force of the tea party: not just the paper, advancement of music racial minorities, gays, and flu vaccine paper women but the essays a particular college, simultaneous demonization of the white working-class world, its culture and research paper way of life.

Obama never intended this, but he became a symbol to ramayana essays many of this cultural marginalization. The Black Lives Matter left stoked the fires still further; so did the gay left, for whom the word magnanimity seems unknown, even in the wake of stunning successes. And as the tea party swept through Washington in flu vaccine research 2010, as its representatives repeatedly held the government budget hostage, threatened the very credit of the U.S., and refused to hold hearings on on poverty alleviation a Supreme Court nominee, the American political and media Establishment mostly chose to interpret such behavior as something other than unprecedented. But Trump saw what others didn’t, just as Hoffer noted: “The frustrated individual and flu vaccine the true believer make better prognosticators than those who have reason to want the preservation of the status quo.” Mass movements , Hoffer argues, are distinguished by music in my a “facility for make-believe … credulity, a readiness to attempt the impossible.” What, one wonders, could be more impossible than suddenly vetting every single visitor to the U.S. for traces of Islamic belief? What could be more make-believe than a big, beautiful wall stretching across the entire Mexican border, paid for by the Mexican government?

What could be more credulous than arguing that we could pay off our national debt through a global trade war? In a conventional political party, and in a rational political discourse, such ideas would be laughed out of contention, their self-evident impossibility disqualifying them from serious consideration. In the emotional fervor of a democratic mass movement, however, these impossibilities become icons of hope, symbols of research paper a new way of conducting politics. Their very impossibility is their appeal. But the most powerful engine for such a movement — the thing that gets it off the book summarys, ground, shapes and solidifies and entrenches it — is always the evocation of hatred. It is, as Hoffer put it, “the most accessible and comprehensive of all unifying elements.” And so Trump launched his campaign by flu vaccine calling undocumented Mexican immigrants a population largely of rapists and murderers. He moved on to Muslims, both at home and abroad. He has now added to these enemies — with sly brilliance — the Republican Establishment itself. And what makes Trump uniquely dangerous in thesis the history of flu vaccine research paper American politics — with far broader national appeal than, say, Huey Long or George Wallace — is you want his response to all three enemies.

It’s the threat of blunt coercion and dominance. And so after demonizing most undocumented Mexican immigrants, he then vowed to round up and deport all 11 million of them by force. “They have to go” was the typically blunt phrase he used — and somehow people didn’t immediately recognize the monstrous historical echoes. The sheer scale of the police and military operation that this policy would entail boggles the research paper, mind. Worse, he emphasized, after the mass murder in San Bernardino, that even the Muslim-Americans you know intimately may turn around and massacre you at book summarys any juncture. “There’s something going on,” he declaimed ominously, giving legitimacy to the most hysterical and ugly of human impulses. To call this fascism doesn’t do justice to fascism. Fascism had, in some measure, an ideology and flu vaccine research occasional coherence that Trump utterly lacks. But his movement is book summarys clearly fascistic in its demonization of foreigners, its hyping of a threat by a domestic minority (Muslims and Mexicans are the new Jews), its focus on a single supreme leader of what can only be called a cult, and its deep belief in violence and coercion in a democracy that has heretofore relied on debate and persuasion. Research Paper. This is the Weimar aspect of our current moment.

Just as the English Civil War ended with a dictatorship under Oliver Cromwell, and the French Revolution gave us Napoleon Bonaparte, and the unstable chaos of Russian democracy yielded to Vladimir Putin, and the most recent burst of Egyptian democracy set the conditions for General el-Sisi’s coup, so our paralyzed, emotional hyper-democracy leads the stumbling, frustrated, angry voter toward the chimerical panacea of Trump. His response to his third vaunted enemy, the RNC, is also laced with the threat of life violence. There will be riots in flu vaccine research paper Cleveland if he doesn’t get his way. The RNC will have “a rough time” if it doesn’t cooperate. “Paul Ryan, I don’t know him well, but I’m sure I’m going to get along great with him,” Trump has said. “And if I don’t? He’s gonna have to pay a big price, okay?” The past month has seen delegates to essay on poverty in south the Cleveland convention receiving death threats; one of flu vaccine research paper Trump’s hatchet men, Roger Stone, has already threatened to publish the hotel rooms of essay delegates who refuse to vote for Trump.

And what’s notable about Trump’s supporters is precisely what one would expect from members of a mass movement: their intense loyalty. Trump is their man, however inarticulate they are when explaining why. He’s tough, he’s real, and they’ve got his back, especially when he is attacked by research all the people they have come to despise: liberal Democrats and traditional Republicans. At rallies, whenever a protester is essay alleviation africa hauled out, you can almost sense the rising rage of the collective identity venting itself against a lone dissenter and finding a catharsis of sorts in flu vaccine paper the brute force a mob can inflict on an individual. Trump tells the crowd he’d like to punch a protester in the face or have him carried out on a stretcher. No modern politician who has come this close to essay alleviation the presidency has championed violence in this way. It would be disqualifying if our hyper­-democracy hadn’t already abolished disqualifications. And while a critical element of 20th-century fascism — its organized street violence — is missing, you can begin to see it in paper embryonic form. The phalanx of bodyguards around Trump grows daily; plainclothes bouncers in the crowds have emerged as pseudo-cops to essay on poverty in south contain the incipient unrest his candidacy will only continue to provoke; supporters have attacked hecklers with sometimes stunning ferocity.

Every time Trump legitimizes potential violence by his supporters by flu vaccine research paper saying it comes from a love of country, he sows the seeds for serious civil unrest. Trump celebrates torture — the one true love of tyrants everywhere — not because it allegedly produces intelligence but because it has a demonstration effect. At his rallies he has recounted the mythical acts of one General John J. Pershing when confronted with an alleged outbreak of Islamist terrorism in the Philippines. Pershing, in Trump’s telling, lines up 50 Muslim prisoners, swishes a series of bullets in book summarys the corpses of freshly slaughtered pigs, and orders his men to put those bullets in their rifles and kill 49 of the captured Muslim men. He spares one captive solely so he can go back and tell his friends. Research. End of the terrorism problem. In some ways, this story contains all the elements of Trump’s core appeal. The vexing problem of tackling jihadist terror?

Torture and murder enough terrorists and music life they will simply go away. Flu Vaccine Paper. The complicated issue of undocumented workers, drawn by uw madison thesis requirements jobs many Americans won’t take? Deport every single one of them and build a wall to stop the rest. Fuck political correctness. As one of his supporters told an obtuse reporter at flu vaccine research paper a rally when asked if he supported Trump: “Hell yeah! He’s no-bullshit. All balls.

Fuck you all balls. That’s what I’m about.” And therein lies the appeal of on why you want to attend tyrants from the beginning of time. Fuck you all balls. Irrationality with muscle. The racial aspect of this is paper also unmissable. When the enemy within is Mexican or Muslim, and your ranks are extremely white, you set up a rubric for cristina sass a racial conflict.

And what’s truly terrifying about Trump is that he does not seem to shrink from such a prospect; he relishes it. For, like all tyrants, he is utterly lacking in self-control. Sleeping a handful of hours a night, impulsively tweeting in the early hours, improvising madly on subjects he knows nothing about, Trump rants and raves as he surfs an entirely reactive media landscape. Once again, Plato had his temperament down: A tyrant is a man “not having control of himself [who] attempts to research rule others”; a man flooded with fear and love and passion, while having little or no ability to restrain or moderate them; a “real slave to the greatest fawning,” a man who “throughout his entire life … is full of fear, overflowing with convulsions and thesis pains.” Sound familiar? Trump is as mercurial and as unpredictable and as emotional as the daily Twitter stream.

And we are contemplating giving him access to the nuclear codes. Those who believe that Trump’s ugly, thuggish populism has no chance of ever making it to research the White House seem to me to be missing this dynamic. Neo-fascist movements do not advance gradually by persuasion; they first transform the cristina sass resume, terms of the debate, create a new movement based on untrammeled emotion, take over existing institutions, and then ruthlessly exploit events. And so current poll numbers are only reassuring if you ignore the potential impact of sudden, external events — an economic downturn or a terror attack in a major city in the months before November. I have no doubt, for example, that Trump is sincere in his desire to “cut the head off” ISIS, whatever that can possibly mean. But it remains a fact that the interests of ISIS and the Trump campaign are now perfectly aligned. Fear is always the would-be tyrant’s greatest ally. And though Trump’s unfavorables are extraordinarily high (around 65 percent), he is already showing signs of changing his tune, pivoting (fitfully) to the more presidential mode he envisages deploying in research the general election. I suspect this will, to some fools on the fence, come as a kind of relief, and may open their minds to him once more. Tyrants, like mob bosses, know the alleviation in south, value of research paper a smile: Precisely because of the fear he’s already generated, you desperately want to believe in essay in south africa his new warmth. It’s part of the good-cop-bad-cop routine that will be familiar to anyone who has studied the presidency of research Vladimir Putin.

With his appeal to his own base locked up, Trump may well also shift to more moderate stances on social issues like abortion (he already wants to amend the GOP platform to a less draconian position) or gay and even transgender rights. He is consistent in his inconsistency, because, for him, winning is what counts. He has had a real case against Ted Cruz — that the senator has no base outside ideological-conservative quarters and is even less likely to win a general election. More potently, Trump has a worryingly strong argument against Clinton herself — or “crooked Hillary,” as he now dubs her. His proposition is a simple one. Remember James Carville’s core question in book summarys the 1992 election: Change versus more of the same? That sentiment once elected Clinton’s husband; it could also elect her opponent this fall. If you like America as it is, vote Clinton.

After all, she has been a member of the American political elite for a quarter-century. Research. Clinton, moreover, has shown no ability to inspire or rally anyone but her longtime loyalists. She is lost in the new media and has struggled to put away a 74-year-old socialist who is book summarys barely a member of research her party. Her own unfavorables are only 11 points lower than Trump’s (far higher than Obama’s, John Kerry’s, or Al Gore’s were at this point in the race), and the more she campaigns, the higher her unfavorables go (including in her own party). She has a Gore problem. The idea of welcoming her into your living room for the next four years can seem, at essay on poverty in south africa times, positively masochistic. It may be that demographics will save us.

America is no longer an overwhelmingly white country, and Trump’s signature issue — illegal immigration — is the flu vaccine research paper, source of his strength but also of book summarys his weakness. Nonetheless, it’s worth noting how polling models have consistently misread the breadth of flu vaccine paper his support, especially in these past few weeks; he will likely bend over backward to include minorities in his fall campaign; and those convinced he cannot bring a whole new swath of white voters back into the political process should remember 2004, when Karl Rove helped engineer anti-gay-marriage state constitutional amendments that increased conservative voter turnout. All Trump needs is a sliver of minority votes inspired by the new energy of his campaign and the alleged dominance of the Obama coalition could crack (especially without Obama). Throughout the West these past few years, from France to Britain and Germany, the polls have kept missing the power of right-wing insurgency. Were Trump to win the White House, the defenses against him would be weak. He would likely bring a GOP majority in the House, and Republicans in the Senate would be subjected to almighty popular fury if they stood in his way. Requirements. The 4-4 stalemate in the Supreme Court would break in Trump’s favor. (In large part, of course, this would be due to the GOP’s unprecedented decision to paper hold a vacancy open “for the people to decide,” another massive hyper-democratic breach in our constitutional defenses.) And if Trump’s policies are checked by other branches of government, how might he react? Just look at his response to the rules of the GOP nomination process.

He’s not interested in rules. And he barely understands the Constitution. In one revealing moment earlier this year, when asked what he would do if the military refused to obey an illegal order to torture a prisoner, Trump simply insisted that the man would obey: “They won’t refuse. They’re not going to uw madison thesis requirements refuse, believe me.” He later amended his remark, but it speaks volumes about his approach to power. Flu Vaccine Research Paper. Dick Cheney gave illegal orders to torture prisoners and coerced White House lawyers to resume cook up absurd “legal” defenses. Flu Vaccine Research Paper. Trump would make Cheney’s embrace of the dark side and untrammeled executive power look unambitious.

In his 1935 novel , It Can’t Happen Here , Sinclair Lewis wrote a counterfactual about what would happen if fascism as it was then spreading across Europe were to in my life triumph in America. It’s not a good novel, but it remains a resonant one. Flu Vaccine Research Paper. The imagined American fascist leader — a senator called Buzz Windrip — is a “Professional Common Man … But he was the Common Man ­twenty-times-magnified by book summarys his oratory, so that while the other Commoners could understand his every purpose, which was exactly the flu vaccine paper, same as their own, they saw him towering among them, and they raised hands to him in worship.” He “was vulgar, almost illiterate, a public liar easily detected, and in his ‘ideas’ almost idiotic.” “ ‘I know the Press only too well,’ ” Windrip opines at one point. “ ‘Almost all editors hide away in spider-dens, men without thought of life Family or Public Interest … plotting how they can put over their lies, and advance their own positions and fill their greedy pocketbooks.’ ” He is flu vaccine paper obsessed with the balance of trade and promises instant economic success: “ ‘I shall not be content till this country can produce every single thing we need … We shall have such a balance of trade as will go far to carry out my often-criticized yet completely sound idea of from $3000 to $5000 per year for every single family.’ ” However fantastical and empty his promises, he nonetheless mesmerizes the party faithful at the nominating convention (held in Cleveland!): “Something in the intensity with which Windrip looked at his audience, looked at all of them, his glance slowly taking them in from the highest-perched seat to the nearest, convinced them that he was talking to each individual, directly and solely; that he wanted to take each of on why to attend them into his heart; that he was telling them the truths, the imperious and dangerous facts, that had been hidden from them.” And all the elites who stood in research his way? Crippled by their own failures, demoralized by their crumbling stature, they first mock and then cave.

As one lone journalist laments before the cristina resume, election (he finds himself in a concentration camp afterward): “I’ve got to keep remembering … that Windrip is only the flu vaccine, lightest cork on the whirlpool. He didn’t plot all this thing. With all the justified discontent there is against the smart politicians and the Plush Horses of Plutocracy — oh, if it hadn’t been one Windrip, it’d been another … We had it coming, we Respectables.” And, 81 years later, many of us did. An American elite that has presided over massive and you want a particular increasing public debt, that failed to prevent 9/11, that chose a disastrous war in the Middle East, that allowed financial markets to flu vaccine paper nearly destroy the global economy, and that is now so bitterly divided the Congress is effectively moot in cristina resume a constitutional democracy: “We Respectables” deserve a comeuppance. Flu Vaccine. The vital and valid lesson of the Trump phenomenon is that if the essay alleviation africa, elites cannot govern by compromise, someone outside will eventually try to govern by popular passion and brute force. But elites still matter in a democracy.

They matter not because they are democracy’s enemy but because they provide the critical ingredient to save democracy from itself. The political Establishment may be battered and demoralized, deferential to the algorithms of the web and to the monosyllables of research paper a gifted demagogue, but this is essay not the time to flu vaccine give up on essay America’s near-unique and research paper stabilizing blend of democracy and elite responsibility. The country has endured far harsher times than the present without succumbing to rank demagoguery; it avoided the fascism that destroyed Europe; it has channeled extraordinary outpourings of on why you want a particular college democratic energy into constitutional order. It seems shocking to argue that we need elites in this democratic age — especially with vast inequalities of wealth and elite failures all around us. But we need them precisely to protect this precious democracy from its own destabilizing excesses. And so those Democrats who are gleefully predicting a Clinton landslide in November need to both check their complacency and understand that the Trump question really isn’t a cause for partisan Schadenfreude anymore. It’s much more dangerous than that. Research. Those still backing the demagogue of the left, Bernie Sanders, might want to reflect that their critique of Clinton’s experience and expertise — and their facile conflation of that with corruption — is only playing into Trump’s hands. That it will fall to Clinton to temper her party’s ambitions will be uncomfortable to watch, since her willingness to music life compromise and equivocate is research paper precisely what many Americans find so distrustful. And yet she may soon be all we have left to counter the threat. In My Life Essay. She needs to grasp the lethality of her foe, moderate the kind of identity politics that unwittingly empowers him, make an unapologetic case that experience and moderation are not vices, address much more directly the flu vaccine paper, anxieties of the white working class—and Democrats must listen.

More to the point, those Republicans desperately trying to use the long-standing rules of uw madison requirements their own nominating process to flu vaccine research thwart this monster deserve our passionate support, not our disdain. This is not the moment to remind them that they partly brought this on themselves. This is a moment to offer solidarity, especially as the book summarys, odds are increasingly stacked against them. Ted Cruz and John Kasich faced their decisive battle in Indiana on May 3. Paper. It was the bitter end. The Republican delegates who are trying to protect their party from the whims of an outsider demagogue are, at this moment, doing what they ought to be doing to prevent civil and racial unrest, an international conflict, and a constitutional crisis. These GOP elites have every right to deploy whatever rules or procedural roadblocks they can muster, and they should refuse to be intimidated. And if they fail in Indiana or Cleveland, as they likely will, they need, quite simply, to music in my life essay disown their party’s candidate. They should resist any temptation to loyally back the nominee or to flu vaccine sit this election out. They must take the fight to Trump at every opportunity, unite with Democrats and Independents against him, and be prepared to sacrifice one election in uw madison thesis order to save their party and their country. For Trump is not just a wacky politician of the far right, or a riveting television spectacle, or a Twitter phenom and bizarre working-class hero. He is not just another candidate to be parsed and analyzed by TV pundits in research paper the same breath as all the others.

In terms of our liberal democracy and cristina sass constitutional order, Trump is an extinction-level event. It’s long past time we started treating him as such. *This article appeared in the May 2, 2016 issue of New York Magazine. Well, it’s shit. That’s right, shit! Shit may just be the most functional word in the English language. You can smoke shit, buy shit, sell shit, lose shit, find shit, forget shit, and tell others to eat shit. Some people know their shit, while others can’t tell the difference between shit and flu vaccine research shineola.

There are lucky shits, dumb shits, and crazy shits. There is bull shit, horse shit, and chicken shit. You can throw shit, sling shit, catch shit, shoot the shit, or duck when the shit hits the fan. You can give a shit or serve shit on a shingle. You can find yourself in deep shit or be happier than a pig in shit.

Some days are colder than shit, some days are hotter than shit, and some days are just plain shitty. Some music sounds like shit, things can look like shit, and there are times when you feel like shit. You can have too much shit, not enough shit, the right shit, the wrong shit or a lot of weird shit. You can carry shit, have a mountain of shit, or find yourself up shit creek without a paddle. Sometimes everything you touch turns to shit and other times you fall in essays on why you want to attend a particular a bucket of shit and come out smelling like a rose. When you stop to consider all the facts, it’s the basic building block of the English language.

And remember, once you know your shit, you don’t need to know anything else!! You could pass this along, if you give a shit; or not do so if you don’t give a shit! Life Alert Necklaces and the Dinosaur. by Lee Ann Bledsoe. CAMERA FOCUSES in on an old woman sprawled on flu vaccine research paper her living room floor. “Help me! Help me!” she cries. “I’ve fallen and I can’t get up.” Camera zooms in to capture the woman’s tear-stained face. She looks needy and helpless as she grovels on ramayana critical the floor. For God’s sake , I think, put her down!

Euthanazia. A club. Find a zombie. Anything to get the whining to stop! CAMERA PANS the room and flu vaccine paper captures the terrified faces of two young children as they run to grandma’s side. Music. “Grandma, grandma, are you okay?” the youngest one cries. Grandma repeats: “Help me! Help, me! I’ve fallen and I can’t get up!” The kids already know she’s fallen; grandma’s on the fucking floor for research paper God’s sake! Evidently the old woman wants her grandkids traumatized for life as well as terrified in this moment. Then a compassionate, soothing voice begins the sales pitch: “Life Alert necklaces … blah, blah, blah.”

I absolutely DETEST commercials that prey on to attend a particular college our fears to sell stuff. So can you imagine how pissed I am that I’m probably going to have to buy a device that advertises to the world I’m so old and feeble I need a team of experts to help me survive my next fall? I fell tonight. Flu Vaccine Research. Two of my great grandkids were with me: Chrissy is three and essay James Mervin is 18 months. I tripped over Fancy Puzzles, a cat who lives with me but belongs to someone else. (Fancy’s another story.) Anyway, Chrissie was terrified. She panicked and screamed, then cried for 30 minutes.

I felt horrible for scaring her so badly. And I wasn’t even hurt. My three great grandkids spend a lot of time ay my house but the youngest two are with me five days a week. I don’t mean to brag–or maybe I do–but I am the best great grandmother on the planet. What would happen if I had hurt myself? What would happen if I had a stroke? No neighbor’s house to run to; all the houses around me sit empty nine or 10 months of the year. My internet and phone (a landline) are out as much as on during the stormy season. Maybe I should get another cell phone?

I have seven or eight of the damn things now, sitting in flu vaccine paper the bottom drawer of my desk. My kids and essay grandkids keep buying them for me. I’m always grateful for the new device; absolutely thrilled to own a gadget that would allow everyone in the world to reach me, anytime of the day or night, anywhere I might happen to be. I can’t imagine anything more intrusive. How do people stand it? Nevertheless, I thank the kids sweetly, play around with the latest phone until the battery dies, and then add it to research my growing collection. But I might have to reconsider; can a three-year-old kid use a cell phone? Or should I order one of those Life Alert necklaces? At this point in my life, I’d rather fitted for Depends.

Why couldn’t the commercial have the old woman climbing a ladder, preparing to resume clean her gutters? I do that twice a year. She could fondle the necklace, look squarely into the camera and say in a strong voice: “This will come in handy if I fuck this up.” I could buy into a commercial like that. Lee Ann Bledsoe says: “I was a fairly successful professional writer 100 years ago working as a columnist for “The Oregonian” and “The Columbian,” writing humorous verse for several greeting card companies, and freelancing for “Alcoholism” and “Health” magazines. Went back to school to earn a degree in fine arts, got sidetracked and ended up graduating four years later with a masters in sociology. For the next three decades I worked in research community mental health, specializing in book summarys the DMIO (“dangerously mentally ill offender”) population.

Fun group. One of those guys took a real dislike to me in May of 2011, effectively ending my career and the bleeding heart phase of research my life. Cristina Resume. I’m extremely grateful he didn’t end me, as well. Now I’m writing again. I’ve just finished “The Unlikely Survivalist,” the first book in a three book series. Other than that, I hate liver–even smothered in onions–love dogs, gardening without gloves, reading and writing.”

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Background Paper on Influenza Vaccines and Immunization SAGE

Jupiter Community High School's A.I.C.E. Diploma Program. The following are course descriptions provided by the AICE instructors to assist you in research paper, choosing AICE courses. Please feel free to contact individual instructors with additional questions. Students considering AICE classes should be academically motivated and hard working students. Grade Levels: 9-12. Mr. Essays On Why You Want College! Germana stephen.germana@palmbeachschools.org. Cambridge International AS and A Level Media Studies offers learners the chance to develop an understanding and appreciation of the place of media in our everyday lives. The syllabus enables learners to research take a hands-on approach to the subject.

Through the critical, coursework components - the Foundation Portfolio - they create their own media products from paper planning through to execution. Book Summarys! Learners also consider and analyse examples from existing media, examining production processes and technologies and the effects they achieve. The syllabus aims to: • develop critical understanding of the media through engagement with media products and concepts and through the creative application of practical skills • explore production processes, technologies and contexts • encourage independence in research skills and their application • enhance learners’ enjoyment and appreciation of the media and its role in their daily lives. Grade Level: 11-12. Mr. Ahern stephen.ahern@palmbeachschools.org. Through the Cambridge International AS and A Level Economics syllabus, learners study how to explain and analyse economic issues and arguments, evaluate economic information, and organise, present and communicate ideas and judgements clearly. The syllabus covers a range of basic economic ideas, including an introduction to the price system and government intervention, international trade and exchange rates, the measurement of employment and inflation, and the causes and consequences of inflation. Learners also study the price system, the theory of the firm, market failure, macroeconomic theory and policy, and economic growth and development. Paper 2 Advanced Physical Geography Options: Tropical environments Coastal environments, Hazardous environments Arid, and semi-arid environments.

Candidates study two of the above environments for Paper 2. Grade Levels: 12. Ms. Gilbert lillian.gilbert@palmbeachschools.org. Ms. Hayes lisa.hayes@palmbeachschools.org. Grade Levels: 10-11. Ms. Depasquale, Ms. Miller, Ms.

Desjarlais-Hansen, Ms. Jones. Grade Levels: 11-12. Ms. Miller Ms. Roulette. Grade Level: 9-10. Mr. Bisceglia, Ms. Wilson, Ms. Scirrotto, Ms. Research Paper! Plummer, Ms. On Poverty In South Africa! Desjarlais, Ms. Hayes.

This course promotes the skills of rational thought, persuasion, analysis, interpretation and evaluation. It encourages the exploration and appraisal of flu vaccine, social, cultural, economic, philosophical, scientific and technological issues. Students will develop an understanding and appreciation of individual, social, and cultural diversity as well as maturity of thought and clarity of thesis requirements, expression both verbally and in writing. Through the research, reading of timely literature, outside novels and on poverty alleviation in south africa works, and current media reports, students will develop critical reading and analysis skills. Levels: Grades 9-11.

Prerequisites: Biology I is suggested as a pre-requisite. contents will include but not be limited to the following: Scientific Method Marine ecosystems and biodiversity Energetics of marine ecosystems Nutrient cycles in marine ecosystems Coral reefs and flu vaccine lagoons The ocean floor and the coast Physical oceanography Chemical oceanography See Cambridge syllabus at:http://cie.org.uk/images/128711-2015-syllabus.pdf. The aims of the you want a particular college, Cambridge International AS and A Level Sociology syllabus are for candidates to develop: • knowledge and understanding of sociological concepts, theories, methods and research findings, as well. as sociological principles, perspectives and flu vaccine paper applications. • an awareness of the range and limitations of on poverty in south africa, sociological theory and research and the ability to compare. and contrast different theoretical positions. • an understanding of the relationship between sociological findings and everyday life, including. contemporary social, cultural and political issues. • an appreciation and understanding of individual, social and cultural diversity, and of continuity and. change in social life.

• an understanding of sociological research methods, including issues concerned with the planning, implementation and evaluation of research enquiry and the collection, analysis and interpretation of data. • improved skills of communication, interpretation, analysis and evaluation. • an excellent foundation for further study. Grade Levels: 10-12.

Course Prerequisites: Alg 2 Honors. AICE Mathematics encompasses topics in flu vaccine, both Pure Mathematics and Statistics (Papers P1 and sass S1). The following units are covered in Pure Mathematics: Algebra, Quadratics, Functions, Coordinate Geometry, Circular Measures, Trigonometry, Vectors, Series, Differentiation, and Integration. These topics are covered in Statistics: Representation of Data, Permutations, Probability, Discrete Random Variables, and Normal Distribution. Flu Vaccine Research Paper! Please note that the on why a particular college, order in which units are listed is not intended to imply anything about the order in which they might be taught. Specific content for each unit can be found at: http://www.cie.org.uk/qualifications/academic/uppersec/alevel/subject?assdef_id=755 . Grade Levels: 9-12. Course Prerequisites: Previous or concurrent enrollment in General Paper is suggested. Thinking Skills is an intriguing course that allows candidates to develop a specific set of transferable skills in Critical Reasoning and Problem Solving. Flu Vaccine Paper! The focus of the Critical Reasoning unit is on development of in south africa, skill sets to: 1. evaluate the credibility of research, evidence (information) to make decisions based on rational, logical reasoning;

2. to analyze and draw appropriate conclusions from scientific data; 3. to unpack arguments, identify flaws in reasoning and present reasoned arguments. Students must have a “true desire to think,” be actively involved in group discussions AND motivated to improve their. skills at thinking. Uw Madison Thesis! We practice making informed decisions based on sound logical reasoning.

The curriculum creates opportunities. for and encourages free and open debate, critical and investigative thinking, and informed and disciplined reasoning. Grade Levels: 10 -11. Course Prerequisites: previous or concurrent enrollment in General Paper is suggested. The goals of the AICE history courses are for students to recall, select and use historical knowledge appropriately and communicate knowledge and understanding of History in a clear and effective manner. Additionally, demonstrate an research understanding of the past through explanation, analysis and arriving at a substantiated judgement of: key concepts such as causation, consequence, continuity, change and significance within an ramayana critical essays historical context, the relationships between key features and characteristics of the periods studied. INTERNATIONAL HISTORY: The Search for International Peace and Security, 19191945 International Relations, 18711945. Grade Levels: 9-12. A course of flu vaccine research, study in Art and in south Design should actively seek to develop the following abilities and flu vaccine qualities:

• the ability to perceive, understand and express concepts and feelings; • the ability to record from direct observation and personal experience; • the ability to book summarys communicate by using appropriate materials and techniques in a disciplined way; • experimentation, innovation and flu vaccine paper the use of intuition and imagination; • critical and analytical faculties; the ability to identify, research and evaluate problems in in south africa, a systematic way; • confidence, initiative and a sense of adventure and achievement;

• the acquisition of a relevant working vocabulary; • an awareness and appreciation of the interdependence of flu vaccine research paper, Art and Design and the individual within. Grade Levels: 9-11. This syllabus encourages candidates to appreciate the scale and importance of the uw madison thesis, travel and tourism industry in the world and recognize the positive and negative impacts the industry may have on research people, environments and economies. Candidates learn that the travel and tourism industry is dynamic in nature and how the in south africa, industry responds to. change:, e.g., external factors such as changing consumer needs and expectations and developments in ICT. The syllabus encourages candidates to learn practical and flu vaccine research technical skills relevant to the industry, enabling them to deal with a range of uw madison, complex situations and flu vaccine research problems. Grade Levels: 11-12. The syllabus is intended to encourage candidates to: 1. Understand and life appreciate the nature and scope of business, and the role of research paper, business in cristina sass resume, society.

2. Develop critical understanding of organisations, the markets they serve and the process of adding value. This should involve consideration of the internal workings and management of organisations and, in. particular, the process of decision-making in a dynamic external environment. 3. Be aware that business behaviour can be studied from the perspective of a range of stakeholders. including customer, manager, creditor, owner/shareholder and employee. 4. Be aware of the flu vaccine paper, economic, environmental, ethical, governmental, legal, social and technological issues. associated with business activity.

5. Develop skills in: • decision-making and problem solving in the light of music, evaluation; • the quantification and management of information, where appropriate; The emphasis should be on the application of concepts and issues to the local context (i.e. the candidate’s. own country), where appropriate. Grade Levels: 10-12.

Cambridge International AS and A Level Classical Studies aim to provide candidates with an understanding. and appreciation of Classical civilisations. The study of Classical civilisations is valuable because: • they form the basis for the Western traditions of art, literature, philosophy, political thought and science. which have shaped the modern world. • Greek and Roman works of art, literature, philosophy, etc., have an intrinsic interest and quality and. represent some of the highest achievements of humankind.

Their study is relevant to flu vaccine paper many issues of. • the multi-disciplinary nature of sass, Classical Studies, which combines different areas of study such as. literature, history of art, history, science and others, leads to a greater understanding of the flu vaccine paper, relationship. between different intellectual disciplines and on why encourages students to make connections between them. Grade Levels: 10-11. This syllabus is firmly based on skills rather than specific content. Through the study of a range of. global issues, learners will explore different and sometimes opposing perspectives. Recognising these. perspectives will help to nurture a climate of cross-cultural awareness and promote cultural agility. Cambridge International AS Level Global Perspectives Research encourages transformative learning,

whereby learners become more aware of flu vaccine research paper, their own beliefs and assumptions and more able to be. self-critical. This leads to an increased willingness to modify their standpoints and be open to different. views and ways of thinking. In short, this course will develop learners who are capable of understanding, assessing and taking action on global issues with competence and confidence. evaluate its reliability and usefulness and use the evidence gathered to construct their own arguments and. lines of reasoning. to thinking and reasoning. By following this path, they will be able to analyse the structure and context of. arguments, assess the impact and limitations of evidence and make well-reasoned judgements.

Learners. will build skills in organising and communicating their findings in appropriate multimedia formats. Grade Levels: 11-12. Pre-requisite: Spanish III. Cambridge International AS and A Level syllabuses in music in my, languages other than English aim to:

• develop the flu vaccine research, ability to understand a language from music a variety of registers. • enable students to communicate confidently and clearly in the target language. • form a sound base of skills, language and attitudes required for further study, work and leisure. • develop insights into the culture and civilisation of the countries where the language is flu vaccine spoken, including. the study of literary texts where appropriate (this does not apply to AS Language qualifications) • encourage positive attitudes to language learning and a sympathetic approach to other cultures and.

• support intellectual and personal development by promoting learning and social skills. contemporary society. Ramayana Critical! In the exams, candidates will be expected to: • understand and respond to texts written in the target language, drawn from a variety of sources such as. magazines, newspapers, reports, books and other forms of extended writing. • manipulate the target language accurately in spoken and written forms, choosing appropriate examples. of lexis and structures. • select information and present it in the target language. • organise arguments and ideas logically.

Learners will study topics including information representation, communication and Internet technologies, hardware, software development, and relational database modelling. As they progress, learners will develop their computational thinking and use problem solving to develop computer-based solutions using algorithms and programming languages. Studying Cambridge International AS and research paper A Level Computer Science will help learners develop a range of skills such as thinking creatively, analytically, logically and critically. This AS syllabus covers environmental issues and their management, especially the human aspect. Through their studies, learners gain an understanding of environmental resources and their human exploitation, and the goal of sustainable environmental management.

Learners also consider a range of book summarys, case study material which can feature local, regional or global examples. a knowledge of environmental processes and the impacts of societies on the environment the scientific principles that underpin issues of paper, sustainability and environmental management the causes of key issues affecting the environment as well as possible ways of managing these the pressures which impact on the environment and book summarys potential solutions to these.